What does it mean to be Sovereign? Supreme authority over A politically independent state
Common Characteristics of Nebraska Tribes Signed treaties with the United States that established Tribal homeland boundaries and recognized their rights as a sovereign government. Lived near the Missouri River in present day Nebraska Operates under a constitution consistent with the Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934.
1. Omaha Tribe Traditional Name: Umonhon - meaning "against the current" Location : Northeastern Nebraska, portion of Western Iowa Size: Total: 31,148 acres Enrollment: 5,992 Chairman : Gary Lasley
Omaha Tribal Government The Tribal Council governs the Omaha Tribe which consists of: Chairman- serves as the administrative head of the Tribe Vice-Chairman Secretary Treasurer Three additional Councilmen all of whom are elected by the tribal membership. All serve a term of three years at-large without regard to residence in a particular district of the reservation.
Famous Omahas Chief Joseph LaFlesche (Iron Eye) (ca. 1820-1888) Chief Logan Fontenelle (1825-1855)
More Famous Omahas Educator, activist Susette ("Bright Eyes") LaFlesche Tibbles (1854-1903) First Female Native American Doctor Susan LaFlesche Picotte (1865-1915)
2. Ponca Tribe Official Name- The Ponca Tribe of Nebraska Location- Northeastern Nebraska, Southeastern Nebraska, and South Central South Dakota Size Total: 159 acres Enrollment- 1,300 Chairman- Fred LeRoy
Ponca Government The Tribal Council consists of: Chairman- serves as the administrative head of the Tribe Vice-Chairman Secretary Treasurer Three additional Councilmen all of whom are elected by the tribal membership. All serve a term of three years at-large without regard to residence in a particular district of the reservation.
Famous Poncas Chief Running Bear (1834 (?) - 1908)
3. Santee Sioux Tribe Official Name- The Santee Sioux Tribe of Nebraska Traditional Name- Isanti - meaning Stone Knife People Location- Northeastern Nebraska Size Total: 5,400 acres Enrollment- 2,800 Chairman- Arthur "Butch" Denny
Santee Sioux Tribal Government Operates under a constitution and is governed by a Tribal Council consisting of: Chairman- serves as the administrative head of the tribal government Vice-Chairman Secretary Treasurer Eight additional Councilmen which are elected by the tribal members.
Santee Sioux Government con’t The Tribal Chairman and Officers serve a one year term and are elected from within the Tribal Council. All of the Tribal Council serve a term of two years and are elected from four districts, Bazil Creek, Hobu Creek, Howe Creek, and Santee.
Famous Santee Sioux Chief Taoyate Duta (Little Crow) who led the uprising against the US government before removal (?-1863) Activist/writer Dr. Charles Alexander Eastman, Ohiyesa (1858-1939)
More Famous Santee Sioux Activist Larry Kitto (1947-1999) Activist/musician/poet John Trudell (1946-)
4. Winnebago Tribe Traditional Name- Hochungra, Ho-Chunk - meaning "People of the Big Voice" Location- Northeastern Nebraska Size Total: 30,647 acres Enrollment- 3,900 Chairman- John Blackhawk
Winnebago Tribal Government The Tribal Council governs the Winnebago Tribe: Chairman- administrative head of the Tribe Vice-Chairman Secretary Treasurer Nine additional Councilmen all of whom are elected by the tribal membership.
Winnebago Government con’t Chairman and Officers are elected from within the Council and serve a one year term as officers. The elected leadership on the Council serve a term of three years at-large without regard to residence in a particular district of the reservation.
Famous Winnebago’s Actor Vincent St. Cyr (1930-1997)
What Are the Inherent Powers of Tribal Self-government? Tribes possess all powers of government, except those, which Congress has expressly extinguished or which the Supreme Court has ruled are inconsistent with overriding national interests. Tribes, therefore, possess the right to form their own government; enforce laws, both civil and criminal; to tax; to establish membership; to license and regulate activities; to zone; and to exclude persons from tribal territories. Limitations on tribal powers of self-government are few, and include the same limitations applicable to states; e.g., neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money.
How Are Tribes Organized? Tribes have the inherent right to operate under their own governmental systems. Many have adopted constitutions, while others operate under Articles of Association or other bodies of law, and some still have traditional systems of government. The chief executive of a tribe is generally called the tribal chairperson, but may also be called principal chief, governor, or president. The chief executive usually presides over what is typically called the tribal council. The tribal council performs the legislative function for the tribe, although some tribes require a referendum of the membership to enact laws.
What Does the Term "Federal Recognized Tribe" Mean? " Recognition" is a legal term meaning that the United States recognizes a government-to-government relationship with a tribe and that a tribe exists politically in a "domestic dependent nation status." A federally recognized tribe is one that was in existence, or evolved as a successor to a tribe at the time of original contact with non-Indians. Federally recognized tribes posses certain inherent rights of self-government and entitlement to certain federal benefits, services, and protections because of the special trust relationship.
What is the Jurisdiction of Tribal Courts? Tribal courts have civil jurisdiction over Indians and non-Indians who either reside or do business on the reservation. Tribal courts have criminal jurisdiction over tribal offenses occurring, and committed by American in Indian Country.
What Is the Relationship Between Tribal and State Governments? Because the Constitution vests authority over Indian Affairs in the federal government, generally, states have no authority over tribal governments. Tribal governments are not subordinate to state governments. They retain the right to enact and enforce stricter or more lenient laws and regulations than those of the neighboring state(s). Tribes possess both the right and the power to regulate activities on their lands independently from the neighboring state government. However, tribes frequently collaborate and cooperate with states through compacts or other agreements. The Tribal-to-State relationship is also one of a government to a government.