Presentation on theme: "To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen OConnor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson."— Presentation transcript:
To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen OConnor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson Education, 2009 Chapter 4 State and Local Government
State and Local Government States are earliest form of government in U.S. States authorize local governments. State governments used to be part-time. Change after one-person, one vote. New types of federalism increase state power.
State Constitutions Written to limit states power. Templates for the national constitution. Southern states heavily revised after Civil War. Western states avoid political machines. Reflect the ideas of the Progressive Movement. Relatively easy to amend.
Governors Chief executive of state government. Play a key role in agenda setting. Have the veto power (package, general, line-item). Responsible for implementing laws. Make appointments. Can also pardon, commute, parole, and extradite.
State Legislatures Envisioned as most powerful institution. Have become more professional in recent years. All are bicameral, except Nebraska. Fifteen states have term limits.Fifteen states have term limits
State Courts Job is to settle criminal and civil disputes. Obliged to follow federal law through inclusion. Most systems organized simply, based on appeal.Most systems organized simply, based on appeal Selection system varies; most are elected.Selection system varies Others are appointed by governor or legislature. Some states use system called Missouri Plan.
Elections and Political Parties Most elections are partisan. Party history varies widely across states. Parties have changed dramatically since 1960s.Parties have changed dramatically since 1960s State elections are often candidate-centered.
Direct Democracy Developed to guard against political machines. Voters place proposal on ballot in direct initiative. Legislators seek approval in an indirect initiative. Voters ask to review laws in popular referenda. Advisory referenda are non-binding. Citizens remove officials from office in a recall.
Local Charters Dillons Rule- local governments are units of state. Charters authorize creation of local governments. Special, general, classified, optional, home-rule.
Types of Local Governments Counties are basic administrative units. Towns are small areas where community governs. Municipalities govern densely populated areas. Special districts handle functions, i.e. schools. Multiple governments can serve the same area.
Local Officials Town meetings allow anyone to participate. All other governments have elected officials. Usually include mayor, city council, and manager.Usually include Can be chosen in district or at-large elections. May also have commission. Public corporations may handle specialized tasks. Work together through the Big Seven.Big Seven
Grassroots Politics Local politics are more personal than national politics. Some elections are nonpartisan. Local news media play a role in setting agenda. May be an elite class with power. Ad hoc groups are common.
Relations with Indian Nations Status of tribes is domestic dependent nations. Trust relationship requires federal protection. Policy has changed over time. States may negotiate compacts. Tribes keep reservations. Also retain trust land.
State and Local Finances Budgets required to be balanced. Requires projections of revenue and expenditures. One-fifth of funds are federal money. States rely most on income and sales taxes. Local governments rely most on property taxes. Income from user fees goes in segregated funds. Must balance progressive and regressive taxes.