Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 State and Local Government"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 4 State and Local Government To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas EditionsAmerican Government: Roots and Reform, 10th editionKaren O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson Education, 2009
2State and Local Government States are earliest form of government in U.S.States authorize local governments.State governments used to be part-time.Change after one-person, one vote.New types of federalism increase state power.
3State Constitutions Written to limit states’ power. Templates for the national constitution.Southern states heavily revised after Civil War.Western states avoid political machines.Reflect the ideas of the Progressive Movement.Relatively easy to amend.
4Governors Chief executive of state government. Play a key role in agenda setting.Have the veto power (package, general, line-item).Responsible for implementing laws.Make appointments.Can also pardon, commute, parole, and extradite.
5State Legislatures Envisioned as most powerful institution. Have become more professional in recent years.All are bicameral, except Nebraska.Fifteen states have term limits.
6State Courts Job is to settle criminal and civil disputes. Obliged to follow federal law through inclusion.Most systems organized simply, based on appeal.Selection system varies; most are elected.Others are appointed by governor or legislature.Some states use system called Missouri Plan.
7Elections and Political Parties Most elections are partisan.Party history varies widely across states.Parties have changed dramatically since 1960s.State elections are often candidate-centered.
8Direct Democracy Developed to guard against political machines. Voters place proposal on ballot in direct initiative.Legislators seek approval in an indirect initiative.Voters ask to review laws in popular referenda.Advisory referenda are non-binding.Citizens remove officials from office in a recall.
9Local Charters Dillon’s Rule- local governments are units of state. Charters authorize creation of local governments.Special, general, classified, optional, home-rule.
10Types of Local Governments Counties are basic administrative units.Towns are small areas where community governs.Municipalities govern densely populated areas.Special districts handle functions, i.e. schools.Multiple governments can serve the same area.
11Local Officials Town meetings allow anyone to participate. All other governments have elected officials.Usually include mayor, city council, and manager.Can be chosen in district or at-large elections.May also have commission.Public corporations may handle specialized tasks.Work together through the “Big Seven.”
12Grassroots PoliticsLocal politics are more personal than national politics.Some elections are nonpartisan.Local news media play a role in setting agenda.May be an elite class with power.Ad hoc groups are common.
13Relations with Indian Nations Status of tribes is domestic dependent nations.Trust relationship requires federal protection.Policy has changed over time.States may negotiate compacts.Tribes keep reservations.Also retain trust land.
14State and Local Finances Budgets required to be balanced.Requires projections of revenue and expenditures.One-fifth of funds are federal money.States rely most on income and sales taxes.Local governments rely most on property taxes.Income from user fees goes in segregated funds.Must balance progressive and regressive taxes.