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What this seminar will cover 1 Important factors to bear in mind when choosing a bilingual dictionary How to use the dictionary navigation tools to get to the right answer quickly and efficiently Abbreviations and symbols used in the dictionary How the dictionary can help you with: How the dictionary can help you with verbs: Avoiding mistakes Extra features plurals gender idioms word order subjunctive tense, subject and object transitive and intransitive verbs reflexive, impersonal, and phrasal verbs © Oxford University Press 2005
What any good dictionary should offer 2 Range of vocabulary Up-to-date vocabulary Ease of use Clarity of design Clear entry structure Large number of examples Pointers towards the right translation Help with forming sentences in Spanish Sample letters and CVs, verb tables, and other helpful material And – only with the Oxford Spanish Dictionary – a free pronunciation CD-ROM that lets you type in any Spanish word, phrase, or sentence and hear it spoken back so you can practise speaking Spanish for presentations or exams © Oxford University Press 2005
What your dictionary can help you with 3 His dad didnt let me phone my friend Sarah. Su padre no me dejó llamar a mi amiga Sarah. © Oxford University Press 2005 su/sus? register? examples using let in the perfect tense? warning that llamar is followed by a in this context? mi/mí/mis? examples showing let + another verb in infinitive? finding let = allow quickly?
Navigating the dictionary 4 Spanish-English section first, then English-Spanish blue-edged section in the middle separates the two sides printed thumb tabs on the outside margin of every page show which letter appears on that page running heads at the top of the page show the first and last words on that page NB: All this applies to the Oxford Spanish Dictionary. Other dictionaries may have different conventions. © Oxford University Press 2005
5 The sequence of grammatical categories English – Spanish Noun Adjective Adverb Verb Idioms in bold italics within entry Phrasal verbs (e.g. pull in, drop off) Spanish – English Either: Adjective Adverb Noun Or: Transitive verb Intransitive verb Reflexive verb Impersonal verb Then: Idioms in bold italics within entry Compounds © Oxford University Press 2005 Start Programs Microsoft Word Document NB: All this applies to the Oxford Spanish Dictionary. Other dictionaries may have different conventions.
Navigating an English-Spanish entry (I) 6 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3 rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 contextualizations in angled brackets single brackets = object double brackets = subject headwordphonetic symbols signposts to meaning in parentheses noun translation swung dash represents headword idioms in bold italics within entry subdivisions of senses main senses labels to indicate register phrasal verbs at end verbs with spelling irregularities marked with asterisk
Navigating an English-Spanish entry (II) 7 a kind offer © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition una amable ofertaLa miró comprensivo © Oxford University Press 2005 narrow the meaning by using context kind: noun or adjective?
Navigating a Spanish - English entry 8 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 nouns are listed with their gender warnings of translation traps links to verb tables at back of dictionary
Common Grammatical Categories 9 © Oxford University Press 2005 adjadjectivedescribes a noun or pronounsad, triste advadverbtells you how sth is donecomfortably, cómodamente artarticledefinite article = the indefinite article = a a, the, una, el, la, los v auxauxiliary verbused with main verb to show tense (have, haber etc.) she has arrived ha llegado conjconjunctionlinks two phrasesbecause, porque nnounthing, person or idealife, vida prepprepositionused with noun to show positionnear, cerca da pronpronounstands instead of a nounhe, el viintransitive verbverb without an objectI have drunk he bebido vttransitive verbverb used with a direct objectI have drunk the water he bebido el agua v pronreflexive verbverb requiring a reflexive pronounto wash oneself, lavarse
Common Grammatical Categories 10 Match these words with the correct part of speech cangrejo azulado perfectamente inscrito cenizas lavarse o sobre v pron prep nm pp conj adj adv fpl © Oxford University Press 2005
Hyphen – and Swung Dash (or Tilde) ~ 11 Subject Field Labels Zool = ZoologyEqu = Equitación Check the list of subject field labels in the abbreviations list inside the front cover of the dictionary to see whether it covers areas you are interested in © Oxford University Press 2005 The swung dash stands for the whole headword so the ending is added: The hyphen indicates the feminine ending replaces the masculine one: © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition
Regional Usage 12 Register © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 colloq* colloquial pej* pejorative fam** familiar pey** pejorative hum humorous vulg vulgar A selection of regional usage abbreviations: *used with English words **used with Spanish words AmE = American EnglishAmC = Central American Spanish Austral = Australian English AmL = Latin American Spanish BrE = British English AmS = South American Spanish IrE = Irish English Andes = Andes Spanish Scot = Scottish English Arg = Argentinian Spanish pejorative (in Spanish: peyorativo) = a word that expresses contempt or disapproval e.g.
Sentence patterns 13 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition sb (somebody)algn (alguien) sth (something)algo (algo) © Oxford University Press 2005 shows pattern: verb + a + person + DE + thing Yo te absuelvo de tus pecados I absolve you of your sins a algn shows you must use a with a person object absolver a algn DE algo to absolve sb OF sth
Phonetics 14 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005
Irregular Plurals 15 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 taboo taboos = tabúes or tabús
Gender 16 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition © Oxford University Press
Idioms 17 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition Idiom = a saying whose meaning has evolved so that it is now different from the original literal meaning of the key words within it. It was a difficult decision for Carol, and it was a long time before she could bring herself to grasp the nettle. Si no estuviera lesionado, otro gallo cantaría. © Oxford University Press 2005
Word Order 18 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 shows construction where word order changes:
Expressions requiring the subjunctive 19 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 warning note: shows when subjunctive is required:
Verb Basics 20 Types of verbs: Transitive and Intransitive Reflexive Impersonal English phrasal verbs Verb tables Verb complementation Other help with verbs: © Oxford University Press 2005
Quick refresher on grammatical verb terms (I) 21 Tense = present, future, past, conditional, imperfect etc. Subject = the noun or pronoun that causes the action of the verb –The dog ate the meat = El perro comió la carne –Dolores loves Paco = Dolores quiere a Paco Object = the word or group of words which is affected by the action indicated by the verb –The dog ate the meat = El perro comió la carne –Dolores loves Paco = Dolores quiere a Paco © Oxford University Press 2005
Quick refresher on grammatical verb terms (II) 22 Objects can be further divided into direct and indirect objects: Direct object = the noun or pronoun directly affected by the verb - Dolores quiere a Paco = Dolores loves Paco - Dolores lo quiere = Dolores loves him ( also le in Spain ) - El perro comió la carne = The dog ate the meat - El perro la comió = The dog ate it Indirect object = the noun or pronoun indirectly affected by the verb. In English, indirect objects are usually preceded by a preposition (from, to, at, etc.) - Dolores sueña con Paco = Dolores is dreaming about Paco - Dolores sueña con él = Dolores is dreaming about him - Paco habla con Dolores = Paco speaks to Dolores - Paco habla con ella = Paco speaks to her © Oxford University Press 2005
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (I) 23 © Oxford University Press 2005 Transitive verbs = vt (verbo transitivo) = verbs used with direct object I wrote the letter = (Yo) escribí la carta Dolores loves Paco and María = Dolores quiere a Paco y María She loves them = (Ella) los quiere Intransitive verbs = vi (verbo intransitivo) = verbs that do not have an object The sun is shining = Brilla el sol She ran very fast = (Ella) corrió muy rápidamente Paco and María left yesterday = Paco y María se marcharon ayer Transitive verbs do something to the object that follows them. Intransitive verbs stand on their own without an object following them.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (II) 24 The same verb can be used both transitively and intransitively: sacar Sacaron el reportaje They published the report = transitive use (el reportaje = direct object) Te toca a ti sacar Its your turn to serve = intransitive use (no object) entrar Voy a entrar el coche Im just going to put the car away = transitive use (el coche = direct object) En ese moment entró Nicolás Just then Nicolás came in = intransitive use (no object) scatter Scatter some cushions around on the floor = transitive use (some cushions = direct object) The birds scattered = intransitive use (no object) © Oxford University Press 2005 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Exercise 25 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 transitive ( vt ) and intransitive ( vi ) esparcir: Él esparció la arena. dispersarse: La muchadumbre se dispersó.
Reflexive Verbs (I) 26 English-Spanish: v refl = reflexive verb Spanish-English: v pron = verbo pronominal Reflexive verbs are verbs whose subject is the same as their object. They describe what you do to yourself. Reflexive verbs are used with an extra pronoun, called a reflexive pronoun: myself, yourself, yourselves, themselves, etc / me, te, se etc Me levanto = I get up Luego me lavo y me cepillo los dientes = Then I wash myself and brush my teeth (literally = brush to myself the teeth ) The same verb can be used reflexively and not reflexively: Abrió la puerta = she opened the door La puerta se abrió = the door opened © Oxford University Press 2005
Reflexive Verbs (II) 27 Remember: just because a verb is reflexive in the source language, it doesnt mean its reflexive in the target language. None of the examples in this table is translated by a reflexive verb in English. © Oxford University Press st pers singularyome no me apetece ir I don't feel like going 2 nd pers singulartu usted te se tú no te atreverías you wouldnt dare 3 rd pers singularél/ellase el ambiente en que ella se mueve me es totalmente ajeno the world she moves in is quite alien o foreign to me 1 st pers pluralnosotrosnos nos estrellamos contra un árbol we crashed into a tree 2 nd pers pluralvosotros ustedes os se os veréis mañana youll see each other tomorrow 3 rd pers pluralellos/ ellas se el pánico se adueñó de ellos they were overcome with panic © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition
Impersonal Verbs 28 Impersonal verbs = v impers throughout the dictionary Impersonal verbs use it in English and the third person in Spanish: © Oxford University Press 2005 English Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs are at the end of the entry, marked verb + preposition or adverb e.g. run away Other examples: give up, take off, let down There are no phrasal verbs in Spanish Phrasal verbs Llueve = Its raining Ser and estar are used with nouns and adjectives to form impersonal expressions: Es preciso que estés listo = You must be ready Está visto que no le interesa = Its obvious that hes not interested
Verb Tables 29 Verbs are listed at their infinitive form: we went to Italy look up the infinitive go they bought a DVD look up the infinitive buy quisieron marcharse look up the infinitive querer puse la mesa look up the infinitive poner me he equivocado look up the infinitive equivocar tuvo que detenerse look up the infinitive tener © Oxford University Press 2005 El Atlético defeated Nantes El Atlético derrotó al Nantes derrotaron check against verb table A1 at the back © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition
Verb Complementation (I) 30 = the range of structures that can be used after any given verb to forgive sb FOR sth = perdonarle algo A algn She forgave him for what hed done Le perdonó lo que había hecho querer QUE algn/algo + SUBJ = to want sb/sth TO + INF Quiere que se vaya She wants him to leave © Oxford University Press 2005 © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition
Verb Complementation (II) 31 There are many different patterns of verb complementation in Spanish and these are shown in the dictionary entry. Think of the difference between: - pensar en algo/algn = to think about sth/sb - pensar + INF = to think of -ING - dejar de + INF = to stop -ING - dejar algo/a algn + INF = to let sth/sb + inf - dejar que algo/algn + SUBJ = to let sth/sb + inf © Oxford University Press 2005
Adapting Examples 32 Nouns: may have plurals which entail changes to their accentuation The change is not given if regular. may require modifications to demonstrative or possessive adjectives (e.g. mi, mis) feminine nouns may require accompanying adjectives to add -a, or -as (if plural) if you refer to feminine nouns in a preceding sentence, the pronoun will be ella/ellas or la/las Verbs: need to be in the correct form (number, tense, indicative or subjunctive) need the appropriate reflexive pronoun, if they are pronominal (reflexive) (e.g. nos burlamos de él) need to use the right structures (e.g. distraer a algn de algo) © Oxford University Press 2005 Careful! Sometimes you may need to adapt a given translation:
Cross-checking 33 Cross-checking in the other side of the dictionary helps when: a Spanish word has several meanings you are unsure which Spanish translation to choose you dont know if the Spanish word you know can be used in a certain context you want to check the plural or feminine form you want to know how to conjugate the verb you want to look at more examples that use the Spanish word © Oxford University Press 2005
Information about life and culture What else can a good dictionary offer you? 34 © Oxford University Press Free pronunciation CD-ROM to help you practise your spoken Spanish Thematic boxes explaining grammatical points and giving extra vocabulary, cross- referenced from the headword Spanish verb tables Correspondence – letters, CVs, s This is the standard formula for starting a business letter addressed to a firm or organization, and not to a particular person. Ver archivos adjuntos (carta.pdf, carta.jpg) Estimado Señor Fernández: Aquí le envío, como archivo adjunto, la versión final del diseño © Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition …
Review (I) 35 Important factors to bear in mind when choosing a bilingual dictionary Navigating through an entry – English-Spanish, then Spanish-English Explaining abbreviations and symbols: How the dictionary can help you with: hyphen and swung dash (or tilde) common grammatical categories subject field labels regional labels register labels sentence patterns phonetics plurals gender idioms word order subjunctive © Oxford University Press 2005
Review (II) 36 How the dictionary can help you with verbs: Avoiding mistakes: Extra features tense, subject, and object direct and indirect objects transitive, intransitive, and reflexive verbs impersonal and phrasal verbs verb tables verb complementation adapting examples cross-checking © Oxford University Press 2005 Questions A chance to discuss any ideas or points raised in the seminar
head word phonetics part of speech translation context Hyphen indicates fem. ending Swung dash stands for the head word.
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