18It tolerates a mixed economy-half communist and half socialist to encourage people to become more productiveSocialismCapitalism
19Farmers can sell excess crops – they pay tax on profits (created the kulaks=rich farmers) 2. Private industry may be tolerated in small industries of under 20 workers3. Foreigners can invest in the country
20Results of the NEP...Industrial production increasesRussian standard of living increasesGov’t becomes more acceptable to most people
21In 1922, the Bolsheviks become the Communist Party and form the Soviet Union...
30Stalin’s secret police find him in Mexico and assassinate him.
31“One death is tragic. One million is a statistic.” Life under Stalin“One death is tragic. One million is a statistic.”Totalitarian RulePropagandaThe GulagsSecret PoliceThe Stalin Purges
32Totalitarian Rule Gov’t controls every aspect of citizens’ lives Individual rights count for littleObedience to gov’t cannot be questionedCritics are silenced (ex.Trotsky)Extreme nationalism is promoted
33Religion was outlawed any many priests were executed Stalin wanted to appear to be a God-like figure to the Soviet people
34The press, radio & all communication is controlled and used for propaganda purposes.
35PropagandaStalin created a “Cult of Personality” with himself as the iconic Russian heroHe had history rewritten to make him look betterPropaganda worked – many people believed problems were the faults of local leaders, not the great Stalin
36He had photos changed…here, Nikolai Yezhov, chief of the Soviet secret police, is “disappeared” by StalinNOW YOU SEE HIM …………….
38Here Trotsy is “disappeared” for being too closely associated with Russia’s hero - Lenin
39PropagandaThe Hammer and the Sickle on the Soviet flag symbolize the workers rising to power under communist rule.
40The Gulags Gulags were forced labour camps/prisons This was a sleeping hall at a Soviet Gulag.Notice the cramped quarters and grim conditions – the Gulag was a horrible place to be
41The Gulag Workers slaved all day long at the Gulag for no money You could be sent to a Gulag for just about anything – stealing a loaf of bread or being accused of speaking against Stalin – “The Old Man”
42Secret PoliceStalin had a secret police force which he used to create terror among his peopleNeighbors, friends and family were encouraged to report any signs of disloyalty.Even the secret police were not always safe, as Stalin would routinely execute officers he felt threatened by.
43The Stalin PurgesFrom 1934 to 1938 Stalin conducted a series of purges of the Communist Party, Red Army and other sections of Soviet societyAnyone perceived to be opposed to Stalin was arrestedMillions died in labour camps, executions or mass killings.
45By 1928, Stalin was the undisputed leader of the USSR By 1928, Stalin was the undisputed leader of the USSR. He wants to spread the communist revolution worldwide. He fears an attack by capitalist countries, and he knows that the USSR is vulnerable.
46“The history of the old Russia has consisted in being beaten again and again…because of her…backwardness, military backwardness, industrial backwardness, agricultural backwardness. She was beaten because to beat her has paid off and because people have been able to get away with it. If you are backward and weak then you are in the wrong and may be beaten and enslaved. But if you are powerful…people must beware of you. We are fifty to a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make up this gap in ten years. Either we do this or they crush us.”From a speech by Stalin, 1931
47The USSR needs to industrialize rapidly. Solution?The USSR needs to industrialize rapidly.
611.A command economy. Stalin took absolute control of the economy. Capitalism is not tolerated.
62The kulaks are eliminated. 2.The kulaks are eliminated.?
63Collectivization - Stalin takes control of agriculture 3.Collectivization - Stalin takes control of agriculture
644.Stalin is responsible for a massive famine in Ukraine. Between 6 million and 7 million deaths in the breadbasket of Europe.
65The Soviet Union is modernized very quickly The Soviet Union is modernized very quickly. Education, Science, Techonologies, industries ...5.
66The USSR becomes a world power!!! 6.The USSR becomes a world power!!!But at enormous cost!!!
67Five Year PlansFive year plans were lofty goals which the people were required to reachStalin would take grain from peasants – as a tax- and sell it on the world market in order to purchase more machinery for Soviet industryOver 20 Million people starved to death because of the agricultural five year plans