Presentation on theme: "The new communist state After the civil war, Russia was in total chaos."— Presentation transcript:
The new communist state
After the civil war, Russia was in total chaos.
Ukraine The most important region of Russia was devastated after WWI 1. Agriculture
Hundreds of thousands of peasants died.
The farms are destroyed.
Agriculture production drops.
2. Most factories were out of working order
Iron production is 3% of its production level of
4. Most mines are destroyed.
The Bolsheviks cripple the economy by taking control of the following...
1. The mines 2. Companies with more than 10 people 3. The banks 4. Oil industry
Other problems… 1. Transportation 2. International trade
In addition, a drought has ravaged the country.
Resulting in...? Famine
The communist revolution is in danger of failing, many people are discontented, so in 1921 Lenin compromises his ideals and announces...
N ew E conomic P olicy
Socialism Capitalism It tolerates a mixed economy- half communist and half socialist to encourage people to become more productive
1.Farmers can sell excess crops – they pay tax on profits (created the kulaks=rich farmers) 2. Private industry may be tolerated in small industries of under 20 workers 3. Foreigners can invest in the country
Results of the NEP... Industrial production increases Russian standard of living increases Gov’t becomes more acceptable to most people
In 1922, the Bolsheviks become the Communist Party and form the Soviet Union...
..a federation completely dominated by Russia
In 1924 Lenin dies. His body is preserved in the Kremlin.
Who will succeed Lenin?
Wanted a worldwide communist revolution Great communist speaker and thinker Major architect of Bolshevik revolution
Stalin Spent his youth robbing banks, trains, time in jail Behind the scenes political operator Placed friends and those who were loyal in positions of power
Stalin takes power.
Trotsky forced into exile.
Stalin’s secret police find him in Mexico and assassinate him.
Life under Stalin Totalitarian Rule Propaganda The Gulags Secret Police The Stalin Purges “One death is tragic. One million is a statistic.”
Totalitarian Rule Gov’t controls every aspect of citizens’ lives Individual rights count for little Obedience to gov’t cannot be questioned Critics are silenced (ex.Trotsky) Extreme nationalism is promoted
Religion was outlawed any many priests were executed Stalin wanted to appear to be a God-like figure to the Soviet people
The press, radio & all communication is controlled and used for propaganda purposes.
Propaganda Stalin created a “Cult of Personality” with himself as the iconic Russian hero He had history rewritten to make him look better Propaganda worked – many people believed problems were the faults of local leaders, not the great Stalin
He had photos changed…here, Nikolai Yezhov, chief of the Soviet secret police, is “disappeared” by Stalin NOW YOU SEE HIM …………….
NOW YOU DON’T !!?!!?!!?
Here Trotsy is “disappeared” for being too closely associated with Russia’s hero - Lenin
Propaganda The Hammer and the Sickle on the Soviet flag symbolize the workers rising to power under communist rule.
The Gulags Gulags were forced labour camps/prisons This was a sleeping hall at a Soviet Gulag. Notice the cramped quarters and grim conditions – the Gulag was a horrible place to be
The Gulag Workers slaved all day long at the Gulag for no money You could be sent to a Gulag for just about anything – stealing a loaf of bread or being accused of speaking against Stalin – “The Old Man”
Secret Police Stalin had a secret police force which he used to create terror among his people Neighbors, friends and family were encouraged to report any signs of disloyalty. Even the secret police were not always safe, as Stalin would routinely execute officers he felt threatened by.
The Stalin Purges From 1934 to 1938 Stalin conducted a series of purges of the Communist Party, Red Army and other sections of Soviet society Anyone perceived to be opposed to Stalin was arrested Millions died in labour camps, executions or mass killings.
Stalin’s 5 Year Plans
By 1928, Stalin was the undisputed leader of the USSR. He wants to spread the communist revolution worldwide. He fears an attack by capitalist countries, and he knows that the USSR is vulnerable.
“The history of the old Russia has consisted in being beaten again and again…because of her…backwardness, military backwardness, industrial backwardness, agricultural backwardness. She was beaten because to beat her has paid off and because people have been able to get away with it. If you are backward and weak then you are in the wrong and may be beaten and enslaved. But if you are powerful…people must beware of you. We are fifty to a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make up this gap in ten years. Either we do this or they crush us.” From a speech by Stalin, 1931
Solution? The USSR needs to industrialize rapidly.
The Five Year Plans Priorities…
2. Hydro-Electric Dams
Industrial Production Result: the economy returns to the level of production in the period before WWI.
But there is a shortage of food in town. Why is there famine?
The NEP created a class of rich farmers, the kulaks, which according to Stalin, did not share their crops with cities. They kept their surplus to sell.
Stalin needs capital ($) to expand industrial and military power against an attack. Where can the money come from?
Russia’s greatest strength… Agriculture
1. A command economy. Stalin took absolute control of the economy. Capitalism is not tolerated.
2. The kulaks are eliminated. ?
3. Collectivization - Stalin takes control of agriculture
4. Stalin is responsible for a massive famine in Ukraine. Between 6 million and 7 million deaths in the breadbasket of Europe.
5. The Soviet Union is modernized very quickly. Education, Science, Techonologies, industries...
6. The USSR becomes a world power!!! But at enormous cost!!!
Five Year Plans Five year plans were lofty goals which the people were required to reach Stalin would take grain from peasants – as a tax- and sell it on the world market in order to purchase more machinery for Soviet industry Over 20 Million people starved to death because of the agricultural five year plans
Industrial Five Year Plan
Think Pair Share “One death is tragic. One million is a statistic” What does this quote say about Stalin as a leader?