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Chapter 15 – Revolution in Russia

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1 Chapter 15 – Revolution in Russia
Section 2 – From Lenin to Stalin

2 Setting the Scene Lenin's first years as leader of Russia had been occupied in putting down civil war. Once the Communist victory and his personal power were secure, he turned to the enormous problem of rebuilding a state and an economy that had been shattered by World War I, two revolutions, and years of civil war.

3 I. Building the Communist Soviet Union
In 1922, the Communists wrote a constitution, set up an elected legislature and gave all citizens the right to vote Peace; Work; Socialism; Disarmament; For social progress; No racism... Marx, Engels and Lenin depicted on the flag

4 I. Building the Communist Soviet Union
They united much of the old Russian empire in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

5 I. Building the Communist Soviet Union
The Communist party reigned supreme and used the army and secret police to enforce its will

6 I. Building the Communist Soviet Union
“War communism" had ruined the economy so in 1921, Lenin adopted the New Economic Policy, or NEP Keep an exact and honest account of finances, manage efficiently, don't steal, maintain the toughest discipline on your job

7 I. Building the Communist Soviet Union
Lenin's sudden death in 1924 set off a power struggle between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin

8 I. Building the Communist Soviet Union
Trotsky supported a worldwide revolution against capitalism while Stalin wanted to build socialism in the USSR

9 II. Stalin's Five-Year Plans
Stalin set out to modernize by building heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm output We'll fulfill Stalin's five year plan!

10 II. Stalin's Five-Year Plans
Stalin brought all economic activity under government control and developed a command economy Life becomes better, life becomes more interesting

11 II. Stalin's Five-Year Plans
Between 1928 and 1939, oil, coal, and steel production grew, mining expanded, and new railroads were built Let us have millions of qualified workers for 518 newly-built factories! By our labour we'll fulfill the 5 year plan to build giant factories

12 II. Stalin's Five-Year Plans
Wages were low, consumer goods were scarce, central planning was inefficient, and goods were of low quality

13 II. Stalin's Five-Year Plans
Stalin brought agriculture under government control in the form of state-owned farms or collectives “To collective work” 1929

14 II. Stalin's Five-Year Plans
Peasants resisted by killing farm animals, destroying tools, and burning crops - the government responded with brutal force 'Komsomol Members (Soviet Youth)  - Go into the front ranks of the Bolshevik Shock Brigade for sowing'. (1930)

15 II. Stalin's Five-Year Plans
The government seized all the grain, and millions died from starvation Stalin’s collectivization drive 1929–33 wrecked a flourishing agricultural system and alienated the Soviet peasants from the land; 15 million people were left homeless - 1 million were sent to labor camps and some 12 million deported to Siberia. In subsequent years, millions of the peasants forced into collectives died.

16 III. The Great Purge In 1934, Stalin launched the Great Purge – a reign of terror by Stalin and his secret police Exiles on the way to gulags. It is estimated that around 50 million perished in Soviet gulags between 1930 and 1950

17 III. The Great Purge The purges increased Stalin's political power but weakened the Soviet military Stalin’s purge of the military led to the execution or incarceration of about half the officer corps

18 IV. Soviet Foreign Policy
Lenin and Stalin wanted worldwide revolution, but also wanted to guarantee Soviet security

19 IV. Soviet Foreign Policy
Lenin formed the Communist International, or Comintern, to aid revolutionary groups around the world

20 IV. Soviet Foreign Policy
In the US, fear of communism led to the "Red Scare" in the 1920s, and Britain broke off relations with the Soviet Union in 1926

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