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Zionism and Israel Seth Ward University of Wyoming.

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Presentation on theme: "Zionism and Israel Seth Ward University of Wyoming."— Presentation transcript:

1 Zionism and Israel Seth Ward University of Wyoming

2 Europe in 1800

3 The European Background The French Revolution The European Background The French Revolution Sanhedrin–Assembly of Jewish Notables answersanswers Napoleon’s famous questions. answers Napoleon’s career in the Eastern Mediterranean "Everything must be refused to the Jews as a Nation... and everything granted to the Jews as individuals." In French: Rappelons la formule fameuse d'un révolutionnaire : «Ne rien accorder aux juifs en tant que nation; tout leur accorder en tant qu'individu» (Clermont-Tonnerre, 23 décembre 1789).

4 Europe The ways of the Old Regime were reinstated after 1815, but by 1870s Jews had achieved citizenship rights in most places in central and Western Europe. The ways of the Old Regime were reinstated after 1815, but by 1870s Jews had achieved citizenship rights in most places in central and Western Europe. In the first 2/3rds of the 19th century, Jews had to accept baptism to succeed in many places In the first 2/3rds of the 19th century, Jews had to accept baptism to succeed in many places Western Europe: Edgar Mortara Case ( ). Demonstrated the extent to which the Catholic Church supported the efficacy of Baptism, even done in secret and without family consent; but the political environment allowed (and even favored) a negative European reaction. Western Europe: Edgar Mortara Case ( ). Demonstrated the extent to which the Catholic Church supported the efficacy of Baptism, even done in secret and without family consent; but the political environment allowed (and even favored) a negative European reaction. Dreyfus Case Herzl reported it. Dreyfus Case Herzl reported it.

5 Early 19 th Century Palestine Mehmet Ali’s conquest of Palestine (1831) accorded well with themes in Restoration Theology regarding Jews returning to the Holy Land. Mehmet Ali’s conquest of Palestine (1831) accorded well with themes in Restoration Theology regarding Jews returning to the Holy Land. The conquests of Muhammad Ali (d. 1849) reached to Damascus and beyond. The conquests of Muhammad Ali (d. 1849) reached to Damascus and beyond. “Damascus Affair” Blood Libel in “Damascus Affair” Blood Libel in David Roberts--Mosque of Omar, 1839

6 Restoration Theology 7 th Earl of Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley-Cooper 7 th Earl of Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley-Cooper ) “The State and the rebirth of the Jews” (1839) – among the first to call for Jewish settlement in Palestine and often credited with the idea “A country without a people for a people without a country” although this probably is based on writing by Alexander Keith in Image: Shaftesbury Memorial, Piccadily Circus London: “Angel of Christian Charity” (for his philanthropic works, not his politics). Image: Shaftesbury Memorial, Piccadily Circus London: “Angel of Christian Charity” (for his philanthropic works, not his politics). Joseph Smith: sent an emissary to the Holy Land Joseph Smith: sent an emissary to the Holy Land During the 1836 dedication of the Kirtland Temple, Joseph Smith prayed fervently for the gathering of Israel. Several days later Moses appeared in the Kirtland Temple and restored the keys necessary for this gathering to begin (see D&C 110:11). Image: Orson Hyde Dedicates the Holy LandD&C 110:11

7 Developments in Judaism Reform movement Hamburg temple, 1818 Reform movement Hamburg temple, 1818 Shimshon Rafael Hirsch Shimshon Rafael Hirsch Zacharias Frankel (“Historic” Judaism) Zacharias Frankel (“Historic” Judaism) Wissenschaft des Judentums. Wissenschaft des Judentums. Abraham Geiger Abraham Geiger Heine, Zunz, Graetz, others. Heine, Zunz, Graetz, others. “Enlighteners” and traditionalists “Enlighteners” and traditionalists

8 Ottoman Reforms Ottomans: Lost Morea (Greece), Hungary, Egypt etc. Ottomans: Lost Morea (Greece), Hungary, Egypt etc. Tanzimat: Gülhane Hatt-ı şerif (1839) Tanzimat: Gülhane Hatt-ı şerif (1839) Hatt-ı Humayun islahat fermani (1856). Hatt-ı Humayun islahat fermani (1856). Reforms in Land ownership Reforms in Land ownership Constitutional Reform 1876 Constitutional Reform 1876 Abdülmecid I Ruled

9 Judaism: Land, Nation, Religion Jewish love for the land: “Blessings of the Land” and “Blessings for Jerusalem” ( ברכות הארץ וברכות ירושלים ) in Grace after meals, Daily Prayer (Amida), Haftarah, etc. –and Biblical promises of patrimony and progeny to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Jewish love for the land: “Blessings of the Land” and “Blessings for Jerusalem” ( ברכות הארץ וברכות ירושלים ) in Grace after meals, Daily Prayer (Amida), Haftarah, etc. –and Biblical promises of patrimony and progeny to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. “Religio” vs. “Natio”: is Judaism a religion or a “nationality” (an idea akin to ethnicity or race)? “Religio” vs. “Natio”: is Judaism a religion or a “nationality” (an idea akin to ethnicity or race)? Haskalah (enlightenment) and Wissenschaft des Judentums: awakens interest in Hebrew, research into Jewish folkways, questions about nature of Jewish identity, rise of Jewish literature, poetry, fiction, education in math, science, newspapers, etc. Haskalah (enlightenment) and Wissenschaft des Judentums: awakens interest in Hebrew, research into Jewish folkways, questions about nature of Jewish identity, rise of Jewish literature, poetry, fiction, education in math, science, newspapers, etc.

10 Persecution, Nationalism, Emancipation Persecution and Pogroms, especially in Russia in 1881 and after Kishinev and the failure of the Russian Revolution (1903, 1905) Persecution and Pogroms, especially in Russia in 1881 and after Kishinev and the failure of the Russian Revolution (1903, 1905) Emerging nation-states in Germany (Prussia), Italy (House of Savoy), European areas formerly part of the Ottoman Empire; attempts and movements in Russia, Austro-Hungarian Empire, etc. Emerging nation-states in Germany (Prussia), Italy (House of Savoy), European areas formerly part of the Ottoman Empire; attempts and movements in Russia, Austro-Hungarian Empire, etc. Emancipation gives rise to Antisemitism in Germany, France, and elsewhere. Emancipation gives rise to Antisemitism in Germany, France, and elsewhere.

11 Chaim Nachman Bialik On Bialik: /bialik.html On Bialik: /bialik.html /bialik.html /bialik.html 24.3penkower.html 24.3penkower.html 24.3penkower.html 24.3penkower.html על השחיטה על השחיטה 08/24/on-the-slaughte/ 08/24/on-the-slaughte/ 08/24/on-the-slaughte/ 08/24/on-the-slaughte/ k-on-slaughter-from-hebrew.html k-on-slaughter-from-hebrew.html k-on-slaughter-from-hebrew.html k-on-slaughter-from-hebrew.html

12 Building the Land Moses Montefiore: Quarters outside the walls of Jerusalem: 1860 Moses Montefiore: Quarters outside the walls of Jerusalem: 1860 Alliance Israélite Universelle founds Agricultural School 1870 Alliance Israélite Universelle founds Agricultural School 1870 Baron Edmund de Rothschild Baron Edmund de Rothschild 1908—Arab nationalist movement—reaction to Young Turks and deposition of Abdul Hamid; Sharif Hussein appointed Amir of Mecca 1908—Arab nationalist movement—reaction to Young Turks and deposition of Abdul Hamid; Sharif Hussein appointed Amir of Mecca 1909—Tel Aviv founded, First Kibbutz started at Degania. 1909—Tel Aviv founded, First Kibbutz started at Degania.

13 Writings Moses Hess Rome and Jerusalem 1862 Moses Hess Rome and Jerusalem 1862 Leon Pinsker Autoemancipation 1882 Leon Pinsker Autoemancipation 1882 Eliezer Ben-Yehuda ( )—moved to Palestine in 1881 Eliezer Ben-Yehuda ( )—moved to Palestine in 1881

14 Theodore Herzl ( ) graphy/Herzl.html graphy/Herzl.html graphy/Herzl.html graphy/Herzl.html Jewish State Judenstaat 1896 Jewish State Judenstaat onism/herzlex.html onism/herzlex.html onism/herzlex.html onism/herzlex.html First Zionist Congress 1897 First Zionist Congress 1897 Old New Land Altneuland 1902 Old New Land Altneuland 1902

15 Cultural, Labor, Religious Zionism Asher Ginzberg (Ahad Ha-Am) Cultural Zionism. Asher Ginzberg (Ahad Ha-Am) Cultural Zionism. A.D. Gordon: power of labor (Labor Zionism) A.D. Gordon: power of labor (Labor Zionism) Socialist movement emerged, with Histadrut labor union, Labor Party (“Mapai”). Socialist movement emerged, with Histadrut labor union, Labor Party (“Mapai”). Mizrahi movement: Religious Zionism. Mizrahi movement: Religious Zionism. R. Abraham I. Kook—Chief Rabbi of Palestine: Secularists are participating in God’s Work. R. Abraham I. Kook—Chief Rabbi of Palestine: Secularists are participating in God’s Work.

16 Arab Revolt under Lawrence of Arabia with Sherif Hussein of Mecca. Arab Revolt under Lawrence of Arabia with Sherif Hussein of Mecca. Balfour Declaration (Nov ). Balfour Declaration (Nov ). Balfour Declaration Balfour Declaration Allenby enters Jerusalem (Dec.) Allenby enters Jerusalem (Dec.) “Hava Nagila” “Hava Nagila” Jewish Legion. Jewish Legion.

17 British Mandate Herbert Samuel—First Commissioner Herbert Samuel—First Commissioner Arab opposition: British redefine area in which Jewish National Home is to be applied. Arab opposition: British redefine area in which Jewish National Home is to be applied. Mandate appoints Hajj Amin al-Husseini as Mufti of Jerusalem Mandate appoints Hajj Amin al-Husseini as Mufti of Jerusalem Growth of “Revisionist” movement of Jabotinsky and Begin. Growth of “Revisionist” movement of Jabotinsky and Begin. 1925—“Aliyah 4”—refugees from anti-Semitism in Poland and elsewhere 1925—“Aliyah 4”—refugees from anti-Semitism in Poland and elsewhere 1929—Arab attacks in Jerusalem, Safed, Hebron 1929—Arab attacks in Jerusalem, Safed, Hebron 1936—Mufti forms Arab Higher Committee, with Axis support, begins anti- Jewish propaganda campaign. Arab attacks in 1936 killed a few Jews; British tried to work both sides, with a pro-Arab policy in some ways but also providing Orde Wingate to train Haganah. 1936—Mufti forms Arab Higher Committee, with Axis support, begins anti- Jewish propaganda campaign. Arab attacks in 1936 killed a few Jews; British tried to work both sides, with a pro-Arab policy in some ways but also providing Orde Wingate to train Haganah. 1937, Peel Commission responds to 1936 riots: recommends partition 1937, Peel Commission responds to 1936 riots: recommends partition 1939 White Paper: does not adopt partition. Closes off Jewish immigration White Paper: does not adopt partition. Closes off Jewish immigration.

18 Partition Plans Left: Peel Commission 1937/8, three sectors Left: Peel Commission 1937/8, three sectors Right: UN 1947, seven sectors Right: UN 1947, seven sectors

19 Declaration of Independence May srael.htm srael.htm srael.htm srael.htm

20 Fighting with Arab Irregular forces Fighting with Arab Irregular forces 1948 Israel Independence, Arab states attack 1948 Israel Independence, Arab states attack 1949 January: General elections. 1st Knesset takes office on Tu Bishevat January: General elections. 1st Knesset takes office on Tu Bishevat. Map:http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/isr ael_pol_1972.jpg Map:http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/isr ael_pol_1972.jpghttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/isr ael_pol_1972.jpghttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/isr ael_pol_1972.jpg Law of return Law of return DP resettlement DP resettlement Feda’iyeen Feda’iyeen Arab Boycott: primary, secondary and tertiary. Arab Boycott: primary, secondary and tertiary. Desecration of Jewish sites in Jordan Desecration of Jewish sites in Jordan Al-Kiyana al-Sahiyuniyya Al-Kiyana al-Sahiyuniyya Gamal Abd al-Nasser Gamal Abd al-Nasser October 29, 1956: Sinai Campaign October 29, 1956: Sinai Campaign

21 Relations with West Germany 1959 Relations with West Germany 1960 Eichman trial (hanged in 1962) 1960 Eichman trial (hanged in 1962) PLO: formed in Jordan 1964, charter adopted in Al-Fath “The Conquest” most important group. PLO: formed in Jordan 1964, charter adopted in Al-Fath “The Conquest” most important group. June 1967 Six Day War June 1967 Six Day War Sept. 1970: Black September (PLO Ousted from Jordan ). Sept. 1970: Black September (PLO Ousted from Jordan ) War of Attrition 1972 War of Attrition 1972 Munich Olympics Munich Olympics Yom Kippur War 1973 Yom Kippur War Entebbe raid Entebbe raid “Myths and facts” “Myths and facts” UN Resolution 242 UN Resolution 242 Three Noes: Three Noes:

22 UN Resolution on Zionism 1975 UN Resolution on Zionism 1977 Likud wins elections 1977 Likud wins elections November 1977 Sadat visits Israel November 1977 Sadat visits Israel 1978 Camp David 1978 Camp David 1981 Sadat assassinated by member of Takfir wa-Jihad movement 1981 Sadat assassinated by member of Takfir wa-Jihad movement Lebanon Campaign: Lebanese Civil War Lebanon Campaign: Lebanese Civil War PLO, Syria, Maronites (Christians), Druzes, Shi’is, Sunnis. PLO, Syria, Maronites (Christians), Druzes, Shi’is, Sunnis. PLO sent to Tunis. PLO sent to Tunis. 1980s Hezbullah 1980s Hezbullah 1987 Intifada starts in Gaza Intifada starts in Gaza King Hussein relinquishes claims on Jerusalem, Arafat talks about readiness to accept the existence of Israel 1988 King Hussein relinquishes claims on Jerusalem, Arafat talks about readiness to accept the existence of Israel 1989 Fall of Soviet Union 1989 Fall of Soviet Union

23 Gulf War, Madrid conference, 1991 Gulf War, Madrid conference, 1993 “Oslo Accords” –Handshake on Sept “Oslo Accords” –Handshake on Sept Purim massacre by Baruch Goldstein 1994 Purim massacre by Baruch Goldstein 1995 Nov. 4 Rabin Assassinated 1995 Nov. 4 Rabin Assassinated 1996 Netanyahu Elected 1996 Netanyahu Elected 2000 Clinton/Barak/Arafat at Camp David 2000 Clinton/Barak/Arafat at Camp David

24 Separation Barrier Map of fence: /map_eng.htm Map of fence: /map_eng.htm /map_eng.htm /map_eng.htm


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