OPENER In 22 words exactly describe Labor in Britain.
James Watt Improved Newcomen steam engine. 1760s Watts steam engine became the mechanical workhorse of the Industrial Revolution. Transportation and manufacturing were most improved by the steam engine.
Steam Boat Steam power would revolutionize transportation. Robert Fulton’s steam boat the Clermont 1807 Japanese depiction of Commodore Perry’s steamboat. 1853
Eli Whitney Invented the Cotton Gin (1793) which led to increased cotton production. Increased profits for plantations in U.S which heavily used slave labor. Cotton=Cash Crop
Henry Bessemer Vastly improved construction by creating a new method for making steal. His method increased the strength by removing impurities and also lowered the cost of production.
Louis Pasteur French Biologist Created the germ theory of disease. Theory proved that cleanliness helps to prevent infections. Important in the development of modern scientific method medicine. Invented first vaccine for rabies. Created Pasteurization process. His discoveries and inventions in health would lead to people living longer and healthier. Led to population growth.
Thomas Edison American inventor who created the first practical light bulb, phonograph and motion picture camera. He was the first inventor to create an industrial scale research laboratory. Held over a 1,000 U.S patents.
A Man of Vision Battery for Electric Car 1880 First talking doll used mini phonograph. 1877 Electric Voting Machin e 1868 Edison’s own genius along with his entrepreneurship led to many inventions that were commercially and industrially practical.
OPENER What two industries were improved dramatically by Watts steam engine. Eli Whitney’s invention, the ________ ____ Increased ________ production drastically. Henry Bessemer’s unique process for improving Iron created ________ which was much stronger. Louis Pasteur greatly impacted the field of ________.
Population Explosion Europe’s population nearly doubled between 1750-1850 due to lower death rates and increased food supply. Cities grew because of decreasing farm land and increased population. Factories attracted people to cities to find work. Cities grew faster than basic infrastructure. (roads, housing, clean water, sewers) This led to crowding, dirt, and disease.
Social Impact Industrialization would lead to Urbanization: the process of people moving to city environments which dramatically increased the population and size of cities. This process occurred rapidly during 1800s due to the I.R.
Industrial Capitalism An economic system based on manufacturing. New social classes emerged known as the -Industrial Middle Class who built factories, bought machines and organized trade and markets. -Industrial Working Class who worked in mills and factories for 12-16 hours a day six days a week with almost no breaks. Their work was dangerous and low paying. Women and children were paid far less than men.
Reaction and Socialism The rapid growth of cities and factories led to terrible conditions in cities and for factory workers. Reform was needed. Many reformers felt the Capitalist system was responsible for the terrible conditions. They advocated socialism: is a system in which society (government) owns and controls important parts of the economy. This theory supports the more even distribution of wealth.
Robert Owen An early socialist who felt cooperation could replace competition (capitalism). In Scotland he took a failing factory town and turned it into a thriving community where the factory workers shared in the success and wealth of their production. Owen attempted the same plan in New Harmony Indiana in the 1820s but failed utterly because people were not committed to this radical theory and lifestyle.
Workers Unions A less radical and more practical reaction to poor working conditions was the creation of unions. Trade/Labor Unions: Workers organized and banded together to try and improve their working conditions and pay. Collective bargaining for pay raises and strikes were tools they used to force employers to accept their demands. By 1914 their were nearly 4 million workers in British unions.