Industrial Revolution (industrialization)= moving from an agricultural society to one based on industry (creating machine made goods) Begins in England – Moves to Europe & America – Starts with farming – People are living longer -Advances in medicine, hygiene and agriculture improved the quality and length of people ’ s lives.
The Start of the Industrial Revolution -By 1750, the Agricultural Revolution had led to a large increase in Europe’s population. -93% of people in Europe lived in rural areas -Wealthy landowners buy up land from village farmers -experiment with new farming methods -build enclosures: fences closing off land -crop rotation & seed drill -requires less labor so farmers move to cities to find jobs -new methods produce more crops!
Norman Invasion Black Death Agricultural Revolution Industrial Revolution
Why Did it Start in England? Natural Resources 1. Water power & coal to fuel new machines 2. Iron ore to make machines, tools, buildings 3. Rivers & harbors for transportation 4. Good Banking System best in Europe-loans 5. Stable Government Fought many wars during 1700s, victories=positive attitude None on British soil Government encouraged business Britain had all the Factors of Production 1.Land 2.Labor 3. Capital (wealth)
Inventions, Inventions Inventions!!! Textile Industry – Flying Shuttle – Spinning Jenny – Water Frame – Power Loom – Set up machines in large buildings called factories Needed water power so built near rivers & streams – England got cotton from American South Cotton gin
More Inventions Watt ’ s Steam Engine – Made travel more efficient – Entrepreneur: person who organizes, manages, and takes on risks of business Water Transportation – American inventor Robert Fulton used steam engine to propel boats – Canals (human-made waterways) made transportation more economical Road Transportation – Built roads for profit (tolls) Railroads – Steam engine on wheels =D – Revolutionizes life in Britain
From the Country to the City The population of England rose slowly, by less than two million people, during the 100 years from 1700 to 1800. The population then increased sharply from 1801 to 1901, increasing by over 22 million. Many people moved into the cities looking for work. Population of England 1700 – 1901
Urbanization Urbanization: people moving to cities Factories emerge around power sources – Near water & coal People come in search of jobs & better life Urbanization causes many problems
Living Conditions England’s cities grew so rapidly that cities were not adequately planned Lacked adequate housing, education, police – Slums – Crowded living conditions Pollution, unsanitary conditions (no drains – Disease spread Life expectancy drops (17!)
Working Conditions Dangerous & many injuries Dirty & made some workers very sick Very long hours, low wages Women were paid less than men Child labor! Bosses exercised harsh discipline Most workers lived in horrible poverty
Positive Long Term Effects – Industry creates new jobs – New inventions & technological progress – Creates enormous wealth for countries – Increased production of goods – Workers eventually won higher wages, shorter hours, better working conditions – Improvements in education – Better housing, diet, clothing & other consumer goods – Rise in STANDARD OF LIVING (better overall quality of life)
Class Tensions The Industrial Revolution created enormous wealth in Britain – Who had the money? factory owners, shippers, etc. – Most workers lived in extreme poverty UPPER CLASS – Wealthy industrial/factory owners & businessmen MIDDLE CLASS – Small business owners, lawyers, other professionals WORKING CLASS – Factory workers & other workers – Workers suffered until they fought for reform
Labor Unions By 1800s workers started uniting to improve conditions UNIONS : organizations that speak for the workers – Most workers belong to a union today – Strategies used: 1. Collective Bargaining: negotiating between workers & bosses 2. Strike: refusing to work until demands are met At first, governments denied workers the right to form unions (threat to social order & stability?) Union movement grew & workers win better hours, pay, conditions
Other Reforms Slavery Abolished – William Wilberforce: member of British Parliament who led the fight to abolish slavery (1833) – Industry more $ than slavery Women’s Rights – Women fight for better pay (1/3 of men’s wages) & conditions…UNIONS – Eventually win right to vote (1920) Free Universal Education – Horace Mann-favored free public education for all children – He was a child laborer – “If we do not prepare children to become good citizens…if we do not enrich their minds with knowledge, then our republic (will be destroyed)” – Late 1800s most Western Europe & US provided free public schooling
Industrialization Spreads British sneak out plans & bring them to U.S. & Europe U.S., Japan, Germany & other European countries industrialize Competition between countries Leads to industrialized countries colonizing non- industrialized countries to seize their raw materials & resources IMPERIALISM!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!