4 Communism Bourgeoisies The middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes.CommunismA way of organizing a society in which the government owns the things that are used to make and transport products (such as land, oil, factories, ships, etc.) and there is no privately owned property.
5 ProletariatWorkers or working-class people, regarded collectively (often used with reference to Marxism).A class of wage earners, especially those who earn their living by manual labor or who are dependent for support on daily or casual employment; the working class.
6 TenementsA room or a set of rooms forming a separate residence within a house or block of apartments.a house divided into and rented out as separate residences, esp. one that is run-down and overcrowded.noun: tenement house; plural noun: tenement houses2. A piece of land held by an owner.
7 CommunismAs first set out by Karl Marx is a system of government where the traditional ruling classes have been overthrown by revolution and the workers rule... with total equality, total democracy, and no oppression by the bourgeoisie.
8 A manufacturing method for a standardized product or products in which fixed capital, raw material, and labor operations are centralized and sophisticated machinery is often usedFactory System
9 Why did Factories Develop? Machines became too large and expensive for home use.Workers and machines were brought together in one place in factories, working under managers.Workers could share skills.Factories provided a better organized and less costly way to produce large amounts of goods.
10 A manufacturing system whereby workers make products in their own homes with materials supplied by entrepreneurs.DomesticSystemA system of manufacturing based upon work done at home on materials supplied by merchant employers —contrasted with factory system.
11 A social or economic system built on manufacturing industries. IndustrialismAn economic organization of society built largely on mechanized industry rather than agriculture, craftsmanship, or commerce.
12 An organization of workers formed to protect the rights and interests of its members Labor UnionAn organization of workers formed for the purpose of advancing its members' interests in respect to wages, benefits, and working conditions
13 EQ What is the Industrial Revolution? How did Scientific and Technological Changes bring about social, economic, and cultural changes during the Industrial ?EQ
14 It officially began in England WhenWhereThe 18th and 19th centuriesIt officially began in EnglandBy the late 1800s, the Industrial Revolution was in full swing in Germany, the United States, Japan, and RussiaEngland was the world’s first industrialized country and the world’s first capitalist economyBy 1850, the Industrial Revolution began spreading to Western Europe and the United States
15 What It was an economic and social revolution Economic changes transformed the way people worked… the societies in which they livedThere were seismic changes in industry and society. The changes were caused by the introduction and large-scale use of machinery to replace hand laborNew technology allowed for the rise of the factory systemWhat
16 WhyWhy do they call it a “Revolution”?The Industrial Revolution is more than just technology; it was a major turning point in World History.The Industrial Revolution had a bigger impact than the American and French RevolutionsThe industrial Revolution was the most far-reaching transformation of society since the beginning of farming 10,000 years ago
17 How All that machinery in factories … how was that machinery powered? By new fuels:CoalCoal produced steam – Steam EngineBy old fuel ”The Watermill”At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, factories were run by watermills.That is, a factory was always located next to a river. The machines were run by waterpower)How
18 Food - You must have a surplus of food The Agricultural Revolution, 1700sImproved farming techniques like crop rotationPrice of food was low, so people could afford manufactured goods.People didn’t have to farm, go to work in cities.Why inEngland
19 You must have a great accumulation of cash The Commercial Revolution, 1700sThis was trade, The British accumulated great wealth.England hadCapital
20 The labor force must be large The Population Explosion England hadA Labor ForceThe labor force must be largeThe Population ExplosionFrom 1750 to 1850, the British population tripledMore food led to more children; better sanitation led to drop in death rateAbundant labor supply to mine coal and run factories.
21 Why In England? Britain’s population grew rapidly in the 1700’s People had better food, better health, and lived longer.Changes in farming help to increase the supply of industry workers.
22 NaturalResourcesYou must have coal and iron mines already in operationIndustrial Revolution was driven by coal > steamThe first factories were built near the coal minesThe first factories were textiles millsThe first factory workers were women and childrenTwo important industries were coal (to run machinery) and iron (to make machinery)
23 Coal mining became a major industry. Steel and IronHenry Cort discovered a way to use coal to turn iron ore into pure iron. Iron production grew.Henry Bessemer made a less costly way to turn iron into steel.Steel was excellent to making machinery. Soon mining towns and steel centers grew.
24 Technology You must have new technology, such as the steam engine The Scientific Revolution, 1600sThe Royal Society of London encouraged scientific discoveriesDuring the 1700s, inventors and innovators stepped forward to invent solutions to practice problemsIn 1769, James Watt perfected the steam engine
25 There were three major changes: a. Population growth During the Industrial Revolution, what happened to the population of Great Britain?There were three major changes:a. Population growthb. Rural to urban migrationc. The growth of industrial citiesWe are going to explore each change.
26 The population triples For centuries, England’s population hovered between 2 and 6 million.During the century from 1750 to 1850, the population tripled - to 21 million.This was a result of the Agricultural Revolution of the 1700s: More food!POPULATION Growth