2StandardsSSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I.a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare.b. Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs.c. Explain Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the proposed League of Nations.SSUSH16 The student will identify key developments in the aftermath of WW I.a. Explain how rising communism and socialism in the United States led to the Red Scare and immigrant restriction.
3From Neutrality to War What caused WWI? Nationalism – devotion to one’s nation; concept sweeping through EuropeMilitarism – glorification of the military; arms raceAlliances – Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary vs. France, Russia and Great Britain
4Assassination Exacerbates War June 1914 – Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary killed by Serb nationalistsAustria-Hungary declares war on SerbiaOthers within alliances follow and war begins
5Check for Understanding Which of the following created the “spark” that started World War I?A. European alliancesB. American imperialismC. the growth of military powerD. the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
6Deadly TechnologyTrench warfare – soldiers dig trenches; new form of battleNew weapons prove devastating:Machine gunPoison gasSubmarinesTanksAirplanes
7President Wilson Urges Neutrality Three groups dominate American public opinion:1. Isolationists – America should stay out of war2. Interventionists – America should enter the war3. Internationalists – America should work towards achieving global peace, but not enter war
8An End to US NeutralityGerman U-Boats began the practice of unrestricted submarine warfare – sinking all enemy ships, including passenger shipsMay 1915 – Germans sink the Lusitania killing 1200 people
9An End to US NeutralityJanuary 1917 – Germany sends telegram (known as the ZIMMERMAN NOTE) proposing an alliance with MexicoGermany promised Mexico a return of the lands lost to US in the Mexican War of the 1840sAfterwards, Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany
11Check for Understanding All of the following contributed to American involvement in WWI EXCEPT:A. isolationismB. anti-German propagandaC. submarine warfareD. the Zimmerman note
12Espionage ActEspionage Act – enacted severe penalties for anyone engaged in disloyal of treasonable activities; wanted to challenge anyone who threatened American authoritySedition Act of 1918 – made it unlawful to use “disloyal, profane scurrilous or abusive language” about America and/or its policiesOpponents saw both as infringements on First Amendment rights.Recall the Alien and Sedition Acts of the 1790s!
13Check for Understanding What was the purpose of the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act of 1917?A. to promote cooperation between US and Great BritainB. to silence any resistance to American authorityC. to end Jim Crow laws in the SouthD. to encourage the migration of African Americans to industrial cities
14Eugene V. Debs and the Socialist Party Socialism – system under which the means of production are publically controlled rather than owned by individualsParty leader Eugene V. Debs was imprisoned for violating the Sedition Act of 1917Socialist Party proved powerful in politics of the 1920s
15The Great MigrationSeeking employment and escape from racism, approximately 1.2 million African American moved to Northern industrial cities in the early 1900s.Rise of black populations in cities such as Chicago, Detroit and St. Louis.
16“Until it’s over, over there!” Mounting problems for the AlliesGerman U-boats attacking more merchant shipsRussian Revolution causes Russia to abandon war effortWar seemed to be going nowhere; until America joined the fightSelective Service Act of 1917 – America held a small peacetime army, needed troops quickly
17Check for Understanding What was the main reason for the adoption of the Selective Service Act of 1917?A. to increase production of agricultureB. to allow women the right to voteC. to rapidly increase the size of the small peacetime armyD. to choose a new method of electing Senators
18The War EndsUS Commander John J. Pershing led Allies to victory on the Western FrontNovember 11, 1918 – Germany surrendersTreaty of Versailles officially ends war one year later in 1919; strongly opposed by isolationists
19Wilson and the Fourteen Points Fourteen Point plan – list of terms resolving World War I; included proposed League of NationsWilson wanted “Peace Without Victory” – no winner, no loserWanted the “Great War” to be the war that ended all warsMost of Wilson’s ideas were rejected by Allies; Germany forced to pay reparations – payments for war damageLeague of Nations – world organization established to promote cooperation between countries
20Check for Understanding Among the president’s Fourteen Points was a proposal to:A. disarm all major powersB. form a League of NationsC. create an alliance with GermanyD. make Great Britain repay its war debts
21The Red ScareUncertainty of the future and the crippled economies of Europe left many Americans uneasy.The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917– Russia becomes communist nation; leads to the first “Red Scare”Communism – control of means of production by the governmentLaid the groundwork for the Cold War that would follow WWII
22Check for Understanding The Red Scare was prompted byA. westward expansion due to increased migrationB. the rise of communism and socialism in the US after the Bolshevik RevolutionC. the annexation of Hawaii following military action by the US NavyD. US involvement in Latin America