Presentation on theme: "1914-1920. SSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I. a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality."— Presentation transcript:
SSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I. a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare. b. Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs. c. Explain Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the proposed League of Nations. SSUSH16 The student will identify key developments in the aftermath of WW I. a. Explain how rising communism and socialism in the United States led to the Red Scare and immigrant restriction.
What caused WWI? Nationalism – devotion to one’s nation; concept sweeping through Europe Militarism – glorification of the military; arms race Alliances – Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary vs. France, Russia and Great Britain
June 1914 – Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary killed by Serb nationalists Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Others within alliances follow and war begins
Which of the following created the “spark” that started World War I? A. European alliances B. American imperialism C. the growth of military power D. the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Trench warfare – soldiers dig trenches; new form of battle New weapons prove devastating: Machine gun Poison gas Submarines Tanks Airplanes
Three groups dominate American public opinion: 1. Isolationists – America should stay out of war 2. Interventionists – America should enter the war 3. Internationalists – America should work towards achieving global peace, but not enter war
German U-Boats began the practice of unrestricted submarine warfare – sinking all enemy ships, including passenger ships May 1915 – Germans sink the Lusitania killing 1200 people
January 1917 – Germany sends telegram (known as the ZIMMERMAN NOTE) proposing an alliance with Mexico Germany promised Mexico a return of the lands lost to US in the Mexican War of the 1840s Afterwards, Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany
All of the following contributed to American involvement in WWI EXCEPT: A. isolationism B. anti-German propaganda C. submarine warfare D. the Zimmerman note
Espionage Act – enacted severe penalties for anyone engaged in disloyal of treasonable activities; wanted to challenge anyone who threatened American authority Sedition Act of 1918 – made it unlawful to use “disloyal, profane scurrilous or abusive language” about America and/or its policies Opponents saw both as infringements on First Amendment rights. Recall the Alien and Sedition Acts of the 1790s!
What was the purpose of the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act of 1917? A. to promote cooperation between US and Great Britain B. to silence any resistance to American authority C. to end Jim Crow laws in the South D. to encourage the migration of African Americans to industrial cities
Socialism – system under which the means of production are publically controlled rather than owned by individuals Party leader Eugene V. Debs was imprisoned for violating the Sedition Act of 1917 Socialist Party proved powerful in politics of the 1920s
Seeking employment and escape from racism, approximately 1.2 million African American moved to Northern industrial cities in the early 1900s. Rise of black populations in cities such as Chicago, Detroit and St. Louis.
Mounting problems for the Allies German U-boats attacking more merchant ships Russian Revolution causes Russia to abandon war effort War seemed to be going nowhere; until America joined the fight Selective Service Act of 1917 – America held a small peacetime army, needed troops quickly
What was the main reason for the adoption of the Selective Service Act of 1917? A. to increase production of agriculture B. to allow women the right to vote C. to rapidly increase the size of the small peacetime army D. to choose a new method of electing Senators
US Commander John J. Pershing led Allies to victory on the Western Front November 11, 1918 – Germany surrenders Treaty of Versailles officially ends war one year later in 1919; strongly opposed by isolationists
Fourteen Point plan – list of terms resolving World War I; included proposed League of Nations Wilson wanted “Peace Without Victory” – no winner, no loser Wanted the “Great War” to be the war that ended all wars Most of Wilson’s ideas were rejected by Allies; Germany forced to pay reparations – payments for war damage League of Nations – world organization established to promote cooperation between countries
Among the president’s Fourteen Points was a proposal to: A. disarm all major powers B. form a League of Nations C. create an alliance with Germany D. make Great Britain repay its war debts
Uncertainty of the future and the crippled economies of Europe left many Americans uneasy. The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917– Russia becomes communist nation; leads to the first “Red Scare” Communism – control of means of production by the government Laid the groundwork for the Cold War that would follow WWII
The Red Scare was prompted by A. westward expansion due to increased migration B. the rise of communism and socialism in the US after the Bolshevik Revolution C. the annexation of Hawaii following military action by the US Navy D. US involvement in Latin America