Presentation on theme: "Topic 2: Independent Africa How was independence realised in Africa in the 1960s and 1980s?"— Presentation transcript:
Topic 2: Independent Africa How was independence realised in Africa in the 1960s and 1980s?
CONGO AND TANZANIA Comparative Case Studies as examples to illustrate the political, economic, social and cultural successes and challenges in independent Africa: 1960-1980s. (Comparative Essay Question)
Where in the world is Congo and Tanzania?
Where are Congo and Tanzania located in Africa? 4 Tanzania Congo
The leadership Mobutu Sese Seko Julius Nyerere
Ideas that influenced the independent states African Socialism: Nyerere argued that there were no class structures in traditional African society. African socialism emphasised community and communal development rather than the European idea of working class revolution. Capitalism: It is an economic system that is based on private ownership of the means of production and the use of labour and resources to make a profit. Democracy: A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. One-Party State: A political system where in only one party is allowed in a country. No opposition is allowed and all opposition parties are banned 6
What aspects of a country should be compared in a comparative study? Political: relating to the government or the public affairs of a country Economic: the choices made about who can create, benefit from, have access to a country’s resources and wealth Social: is the different ways that people organise themselves and live together in groups and the relationship which emerge (eg a class system) Cultural: is the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, food, to social habits, clothes or music
What kind of State emerged? Congo: supported by USA 1960: Gained independence from Belgium (Kasavubu - President, Lumumba - Prime Minister) – multi-party democracy. Mineral rich region, Katanga, seceded (Moise Tshombe) 1961 and 1965: military Coup (supported by USA / CIA) Mobutu established a military dictatorship. 1967: Abolished opposition parties. Authenticité or Zairisation Mobutu’s Zaire characterised by corruption, kleptocracy, elitism. Tanzania: non-aligned 1961: Gained independence from Britain – muti-party democracy 1962 – Nyerere became President 1963: Nyerere abolished all other political parties. TANU became the only legal party. 1964: Tanzania and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania 1967: Arusha Declaration - stated commitment to African Socialism – introduced ‘Leadership Code’ and Ujaama. Attempted to remain non-aligned politically and avoid economic neo-colonialism. 8
What types of leaders emerged? Congo / Zaire Patrice Lumumba – 1960: 1 st Prime Minister of independent (DRC). Leader of the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC) – A pan/multi-ethnic political party to unify all Congolese into a single nation Believed in ‘positive neutralism’ wanted DRC free from foreign interference, initially non-aligned but turned to USSR for support when Katanga seceded. Arrested and executed with USA / Belgium support in 1961 Joseph Mobutu – 1961 and 1965: seized power by military coup (supported by the west) Ruled as a ruthless dictator until his death in 1997. Tanzania Julius Nyerere – 1961: 1 st Prime Minister of independenet Tanganyika; President in 1962. Leader of Tanganyikan African National Union (TANU). Called ‘Mwalimu’ (teacher) – Remembered for his personal integrity. Believed in pan-Africanism and equity. He rejected tribalism and opposed neo-colonialism. He attempted to keep Tanzania non-aligned during Cold War. Voluntarily retired in 1985
Economic Legacy of Colonialism Both countries were colonised by European powers, Congo by Belgium and Tanzania by Germany and then Britain, who exploited their natural resources. At independence both countries had underdeveloped economies - their wealth came from agriculture and the sale of unprocessed minerals. Neither country had industrialised or had developed a manufacturing industry. The colonial powers only built infrastucture to service the export of raw materials not to promote internal trade.
Similarities between the economies of Congo and Tanzania In both countries the majority of people were peasants (small scale farmers) Both countries struggled to develop a manufacturing industry after independence In both countries land and industry were nationalised. Mobutu nationalised most mines (‘Zairinisation’ proved to be a total failure and he had to re-privatise most mines); Tanzania also nationalised its industry and land but was forced to privatise these in return for debt relief from the World Bank and IMF in the 1980s In both countries during the period 1960-1980s the majority of the people lived in poverty and the countries faced economic crisis Both countries relied on the export of primary products. Congo is very rich in valuable minerals: copper, industrial diamonds, cobalt, gold and zinc; Tanzania’s economy is based on the production of cash crops such as coffee and tea. It also mines a rare gemstone called tanzanite Both countries were badly affected by the drop in price for raw materials in 1970s Neither country had oil reserves so were negatively impacted by steep increases in cost of oil (necessary for industrialisation and transport) in 1970s Both countries experienced extreme economic problems in the years after independence and by the 1980s relied from loans from foreign countries (Congo – USA) and institutions (Tanzania - IMF and World Bank) to avoid bankruptcy
Differences between the economies of Congo and Tanzania CONGO/ ZAIRE Adopted a capitalist economic model (after initial attempts at nationalisation/ ‘Zairisation’) Relied heavily of foreign investment and received support from USA and West. Mobutu aimed to industrialise, process its own raw materials and develop an industrial base. Under Mobutu a very wealthy elite emerged. Corruption and cronyism led to greater class difference. TANZANIA Adopted a socialist economic model (although Nyerere had to abandon this in the 1980s) Attempted to remain economically independent and avoid neo-colonialism Nyerere believed that attempting to industrialse was a mistake. He introduced Ujaama, a villagisation policy aimed to make the country self-sufficient in terms of food Nyerere attempted to prevent a new elite emerging with his ‘Leadership Code’
Social & cultural successes and challenges Congo Clothing: inspired by ‘Maoist’ dress Imposed ‘Abacos’ from (‘A bas le costumes’ – that literally meant ‘down with the suit!’) All Africans encouraged to discard their ‘European’ names. State run schools were established after independence but Mobutu did not divert sufficient money to education and Congo lacked qualified teachers. Tanzania Clothing: inspired by ‘Maoist’ dress Language: African-language departments and research centers were created in newly founded universities Promotion of Kiswahili as a unifying language Used education to promote a national ethos, ideology and philosophy, and principles of a new society embracing a concept of social justice; ‘Villagisation’: collective villages (managed by locals - inexperienced)