Presentation on theme: "US II December 3, 2014 1. 24.1 Notes, Part 1: Rise of Dictators 2. 24.1 Vocabulary 3. Hearing/Vision Screening 1. Period 7: 1:20 4. Current Event Due Friday."— Presentation transcript:
US II December 3, 2014 1. 24.1 Notes, Part 1: Rise of Dictators 2. 24.1 Vocabulary 3. Hearing/Vision Screening 1. Period 7: 1:20 4. Current Event Due Friday
24.1 AMERICA AND THE WORLD Unit V World War II 1939-1945 Chapters 24 & 25
The Rise of Dictators Nov.1918: Germany surrendered to Allies (Britain, France, USA) Germans hated Treaty of Versailles. European nations suffered after WWI through 1920’s and during the Depression of 1930’s. Some nations embraced dictators. Totalitarianism-single ruler that controls citizens’ lives.
Mussolini in Italy Benito Mussolini Italian WWI veteran. 1919- Created Italy's fascist party. Fascism: Aggressive militant nationalism. Believed military expansion makes nation great. Like many Italians, he was disappointed with Allies and Treaty of Versailles. 1922- Mussolini and his followers, black shirts, (unemployed WWI veterans) march on Rome saying communist revolt was near and the he could restore order in Italy. Soon he was named Premier by King Victor Emmanuel. 1925: Mussolini took total control of Italy. Outlawed other political parties, controlled all newspapers, and established a secret police. Known as IL Duce, “the leader.”
Hitler and Rise of Nazi’s in Germany Adolph Hitler: German WWI veteran. Political & economic chaos in Germany after WWI led to rise of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or NAZI. Nazis were not socialists and were not concerned with workers rights. Believed in German ethnic purity and nationalism and that if pure German Aryans controlled Germany, its’ greatness could be restored. Hitler joined the Nazi party after WWI and soon became the leader.
Hitler and the Nazi’s 1923: Was imprisoned for 9 months after he led a failed NAZI rebellion to overthrow Weimar Republic. In prison wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) describing problems facing Germany and vision of a new German Reich. Wrote about Anti-Semitism Believed German Aryan master race needed more lebensraum, living space, and wanted Germany to expand.
Hitler and the Nazi’s Horrible German economy in 1920’s/1930’s helped Nazi party gain power in the Reichstag (German congress.) 1933- President von Hindenburg of the Weimar Republic appointed Hitler Chancellor of Germany. President Von Hindenburg died in 1934. Known as Fuhrer, “the leader.” Created secret police (Gestapo) and government controlled media and education. Late 1930’s, Hitler’s economic policies (rebuilding of military and public works projects) ended German economic depression.
Militarists Gain Control in Japan - During 1920’s: Capitalism & democracy in Japan. - Small island: needs to import resources to produce goods. - Imports were more expensive than export revenue, which hurt businesses and led to unemployment during late 1920’s. - When Depression hit in 1930’s, other nations raised tariffs, further hurting Japanese economy. - Japanese people began to doubt democracy & capitalism.
Militarists Gain Control in Japan - Militarists in Japan assassinated the Prime Minister in 1932. - Emperor allowed militarists to take over government. - Japan became imperialist, hoping to dominate Asia. - Led by Emperor Hirohito, Japan began aggressively expanding. - 1931- Japan invaded Manchuria, region in China with natural resources. - 1937- Japan invaded all of China. - 1941: Hideki Tojo, head of Japanese military, named Prime Minister.
Stalin Takes Over the USSR 1922- Communist Russia under Vladimir Lenin renamed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR.) Joseph Stalin took over in 1929. He transformed the USSR from a peasant farming society into an industrial and military superpower (5-year plans and collective farming.) Very cruel and ruthless. Responsible for at least 10 million deaths of suspected traitors & peasants who resisted his communist policies (The Great Purge)
From 24.1: America Turns to Neutrality Most Americans supported isolationism (similar to before WWI.) Neutrality Act of 1935: Illegal for Americans to sell weapons to any nation at war. 1936-1939: Spanish Civil War- Francisco Franco (Fascist leader) vs. mainly Communist Spanish government. Soviet Union supported Communists; Italy and Germany assisted the Fascists.
America Turns to Neutrality FDR supported internationalism: trade between nations can lead to prosperity and help prevent war. Neutrality Act of 1937: Required any county at war who buys American goods (non- contraband) to do so on a cash and carry basis. July, 1937: Japan launched invasion of China: FDR authorized sale of weapons to help the Chinese. Legal?
December 12, 2013 1. WWII Map-Europe in 1939- Handout 2. Continue 24.2 Notes: WWII Begins 3. Finish 24.1 and 24.2 Vocabulary 4. Ch. 24 Quiz: Sections 1,2,4: Wednesday, Dec. 18 th 5. Unit V Exam (Ch. 24 & 25): Wednesday, January 15 th
WWII Begins 1933: Hitler demanded unification of all German speaking people in Europe. March, 1936: German troops entered Rhineland, area under French control since WWI. French had no resistance.
WWII Begins Feb. 1938: Hitler sends NAZI troops into Austria and annexed Austria. (Anchluss)
WWII Begins Sept., 1938: Hitler demands Sudetenland: part of Czechoslovakia with 3 million German speaking people and rich in natural resources. Hitler and French and British leaders in go to Munich to meet.
WWII Begins Sept. 1938: Neville Chamberlain and Edward Daladier agree to Hitler's demands at the Munich Conference (Treaty of Munich) Appeasement: Giving in to aggressor's demands to keep peace. Hitler promised no further expansion. Oct., 1938: German troops enter Sudetenland.
WWII Begins Oct.1938: Hitler demanded Danzig, Polish Baltic Sea port city (90% German population) Danzig was German territory before WWI. Hitler also requested highway and railroad access across Northern Poland. Appeasement had failed!!! March, 1939: NAZI occupation of all of Czechoslovakia. Britain makes announcement…
WWII Begins Aug.1939: Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact: Stalin and Hitler sign agreement not to go to war with each other and to invade and divide Poland. Sept. 1, 1939: Hitler invades Poland. Sept. 3, 1939 British and French declare war on Germany. Sept. 1939-May, 1940: “Phony War” German blitzkrieg: lightning war: Tanks, artillery, aircraft, soldiers. Poland, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands Belgium, Luxembourg, all surrender by Summer, 1940.
Miracle at Dunkirk Hundreds of thousands of Allied soldiers trapped at Dunkirk. Miracle at Dunkirk: 338,000 French and British troops saved. Three weeks later: June 22, 1940- France surrenders.
Battle of Britain May, 1940: Winston Churchill replaces Neville Chamberlain as British Prime Minister. Hitler thought Britain would negotiate peace after France surrendered. Prepared for German invasion. Germany’s invasion began in the air because invasion across Channel would be too dangerous. German Luftwaffe vs. RAF (Royal Air Force.) Air battle from June, 1940-Oct. 1940 began with Luftwaffe attacking British Navy and RAF. Aug 24, 1940: Luftwaffe accidentally bombed center of London. RAF responds by bombing Berlin. Hitler commands Luftwaffe to bomb Britain repeatedly.
Battle of Britain Hitler wanted to terrorize the British so they would lose their will to fight. British developed new technology called radar, giving them an advantage. British RAF successful vs. the Luftwaffe. Oct.12, 1940: Hitler stops the attempted invasion of Britain. The Blitz: September 1940-May 1941: raids in which more than 100 tons of explosives were dropped on 16 British cities. London was bombed by the Luftwaffe for 57 consecutive nights.