Presentation on theme: "Middle East? OR Near East? OR Southwest Asia? OR….?"— Presentation transcript:
Middle East? OR Near East? OR Southwest Asia? OR….?
Includes 25+ territories Western Sahara is disputed 5.91 million square miles
Location Almost 2 times the size of US Located at latitudes equivalent Boston and Bogota
Population Around 600 million people Majority of population in four countries: ○ Iran ○ Egypt ○ Turkey ○ Pakistan Why is this?
Natural Vegetation Map
Has a high population growth ○ Developing countries ○ Muslim cultures ○ Palestine, one of the highest growth rates in the world The more urban the population, the wealthier the country ○ Kuwait
On the other hand….. Desperately poor countries urban population is less than 32% Ex: ○ Afghanistan ○ Sudan ○ Yemen
Water in the Middle East! Tigris River Nile River Euphrates River Jordan River Persian Gulf Arabian Sea Mediterranean Sea Indian Ocean Red Sea Black Sea Gulf of Aden Strait of Hormuz Suez Canal Dardanelles Strait Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Oman Caspian Sea
The Great River Longest River in the world, over 4100 miles long Runs through ten countries Starts in Lake Victoria
Sustains almost 160 million people 95% of Egypt’s population lives on 5% its land Nile Water Agreement- Egypt has access to 2/3 of Niles water
Tigris-Euphrates River System Land in between, historically called Mesopotamia ○ “Land between two rivers” Shared by Iraq, Turkey, and Syria Part of the Fertile Crescent Marsh, swamps, shallows
The Jordan River System extremely important resource to surrounding countries Where Jesus was baptized Sections still used for baptism
The Dead Sea 1,385 ft. below sea level One of the saltiest bodies of water Has a high buoyancy-people can easily float Health benefits
The Arabian Peninsula and It’s Oil
2/3 of the world’s oil is located in the Middle East (most located along the Persian Gulf and in Iraq)
The U. S. imports 30% of its oil needs from the Middle East.
The Oil Giant of Saudi Arabia Occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula Homeland of Arab civilization and Islam Interior is plateau Has no permanent rivers! Saudization
Persian Gulf Oil Exports
Saudi Oil Has the largest amount of proven oil reserves in the world Produces 2 nd largest amount of oil Ghawar, worlds largest oil field
Bahrain Small island Connected to SA by four-lane causeway Also center for oil refinement, but running out of oil Only country of Arabian Penninsula to allow women to vote
QatarUAE On worlds third largest natural gas reserve 4/5 of population are imported workers because of that industry Home of al-Jazeera But before the oil and gas…. Confederation of seven units Dubai and Abu Dhabi are the oil economic centers Because of oil, UAE is successfully diversifying its economy More liberal, especially Dubai
YemenOman Located on mountainous southern tip Receives heaviest rainfall of the peninsula Struggling economy ○ Lack of industrial production ○ Immigrant Yemen workers ○ Late oil discovery Source of ancient worlds frankincense Capital, Muscat vital trade port between ME- SA Been U.S. allies in Gulf War and War in Iraq
Israeli-Palestinian conflict Israelis: Citizens of the Jewish nation of Israel Not all, but majority are Jewish Palestinians: Arabs with Palestine origins. Majority are Muslims A stateless nation
Why? What’s the big fuss? Occupied Territory ○ Gaza Strip ○ West Bank ○ Golan Heights Wars of ○ 1948-1949 ○ 1967 ○ 1973 Today, who gets what?
Israel Law of return ○ Grants citizenship to any Jew who wishes to live there Pop. of 6.8 million, 80% Jewish Culturally and religiously diverse Jerusalem- political capital Tel Aviv-Jaffa- economic capital
Continued…. Agriculturally self sustaining Great irrigation systems Recent conflict takes toll on economy relies heavily on exports of equipment and U.S. aid
Continued… IDF-Israeli Defense Force One of the best Air forces in the world Works with the United States on weapons development Citizens required to serve once 18 ○ Men 3 years ○ Women 2 years
Palestinians A stateless nation Live in surrounding countries and the Occupied Territories Ghurba- similar to the Jews Diaspora PLO- Palestinian Liberation Organization Hamas- Palestinian political party
The recent focus 1993: Israel and PLO sign agreements, lead to withdrawal of Israeli troops 2005: Israel to remove all Jewish settlements and troops from Gaza by end of 2005 Today: Palestinians claim Israel still occupying parts of Gaza, Israel claims they are offering protection against Hamas terrorism
Iraq Why such a hot spot? ○ Sunni ○ Shi’ite ○ Kurd Tigris and Euphrates used for agriculture Baghdad is everything! ○ Located perfectly
Continued….. Oil is main source of revenue Should have allowed them to thrive, but…. ○ Arab Baath Socialist Party Saddam givith and Saddam takith away
Iran Used to be Persia, until occupied by British Restoration of the “shah” ○ Reza Pahlavi 1979, Khomeini ○ Islamic Republic
Continued… First country in ME to produce oil ○ Also, pistachio and Persian rugs Mostly Mts., plateau and desert Northwest region able to grow subtropical crops ○ Majority depend on irrigation
Kuwait Size of New Jersey ○ Yet, 4 th largest store of petroleum resources From poor fishers and farmers to wealthy urbanized state OIL ONLY!
U.S. and Iraq 1980-88 Iran-Iraq War 1991 Gulf War 2003 War in Iraq
U.S. and Iran 1980 Iraq Iran War 1980 Tehran Hostages 2002 “Axis of Evil” Straight of Hormuz/Nuclear capabilities