Operant Conditioning Skinner Learning from the consequences of behavior. from the consequences of behavior.
Skinner and Operant Learner acts on something (takes action) You are who you are because of your life-long history of rewards and punishments. Classical- for more reflexive, automatic type activities. Operant - Learner seeks rewards and avoids punishments.
Reinforcement: anything that increases the probability that a given response will occur again. Reinforcement: anything that increases the probability that a given response will occur again. Primary Secondary Positive Negative Punishment?
Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Partial
Partial Reinforcement Ratio Based on the number of correct responses an organism makes between reinforcement Based on the number of correct responses an organism makes between reinforcement Interval Based on the amount of time that elapses before reinforcement is given Based on the amount of time that elapses before reinforcement is given 4 Different Partial Reinforcement Schedules
1. Fixed Ratio reinforcement Schedule Reinforcement that depends on the number of responses Ex: received a treat after the 5 th, 10 th, 15 th, 20 th … correct response Ex: received a treat after the 5 th, 10 th, 15 th, 20 th … correct response
2. Variable-ratio reinforcement schedule Reinforcement is based on number of correct responses, but varies in the number Ex: 4 th, 15 th, 73 rd, 100 th, 102 nd, 150 th, etc Ex: 4 th, 15 th, 73 rd, 100 th, 102 nd, 150 th, etc Best for prolonged periods of timeBest for prolonged periods of time
3. Fixed-Interval Reinforcement Schedule Reinforcement occurs after a specified amount of time Ex: reinforcement is given every 5 minutes, or every hour, or every 3 hours etc Ex: reinforcement is given every 5 minutes, or every hour, or every 3 hours etc The time is constantThe time is constant
4. Variable-interval reinforcement schedule The amount of time between reinforcements changes each time Ex: after 5 minutes, 13 minutes, 45 minutes, 53 minutes, 20 minutes etc Ex: after 5 minutes, 13 minutes, 45 minutes, 53 minutes, 20 minutes etc
Aversive Control Unpleasant or aversive consequences which influence our behavior
Negative Reinforcement verses Punishment Negative Reinforcement A painful or unpleasant stimulus is removed A painful or unpleasant stimulus is removed The removal increases the frequency of a behavior The removal increases the frequency of a behavior Ex: Headache medicationEx: Headache medication Punishment Painful or unpleasant stimulus which decreases the behavior that caused it Painful or unpleasant stimulus which decreases the behavior that caused it Ex: SpankingEx: Spanking
Modeling 3 Types 1. When the behavior of others simply increases the chance you will do the same.
Pure imitation Use a video to get “Buns of Steel” Use a video to get “Buns of Steel” Learning how to shoot a free throw Learning how to shoot a free throw Learning how to swing a golf club Learning how to swing a golf club Learning how to fry an egg Learning how to fry an egg 2. Observational Learning
3.Disinhibition Used in clinical work with phobias Person watches someone engage in a threatening activity without an aversive response Person watches someone engage in a threatening activity without an aversive response Person may find it easier to engage in same activity Person may find it easier to engage in same activity Ex: Person with fear of snakes watches people handle snakes without incident Ex: Person with fear of snakes watches people handle snakes without incident
Three factors that influence learning. Feedback Transfer -positive-negative Practice
Tid Bits on Learning Everyone learns how to learn Tend to develop strategies for problem solving and sometimes get set in our approach Tend to develop strategies for problem solving and sometimes get set in our approach
Learned Helplessness When people are unable to control events in their lives they are less motivated to act and stop trying Ex: domestic abuse, self fulfilling prophecy Learned Laziness Learned Laziness If rewards come without effortIf rewards come without effort
Shaping Process of using reinforcements to create new responses out of old Ex: In Class Work, mouse in a box Ex: In Class Work, mouse in a box
Response Chains Learned responses that follow one another in a sequence that provide a signal for the next Ex: swimming, pounding a nail etc. Ex: swimming, pounding a nail etc.
Information Processing psychologists refer to all cognitive and mental processes that occur in the brain as information processing.
Information Processing Input Central processing Output
Input selective attention feature extraction *All the information we receive from our senses If you take it all in you will be overwhelmed. Therefore:
Central Processing *Refers to the storing and sorting of information in the mind.
Memory Three types of memory: sensory storage short term long term
Sensory Stage Holds info for only an instant at the receptors
Short Term Holds info for approximately 20 seconds Can only hold 7-8 unrelated items (unrehearsed) Chunking Clustering
Long Term Any storage from seconds on Indefinite
Output Retrieving information Stored info is useless unless we can retrieve it Key to memory is ORGANIZATION
1. Recognition “oh yeah syndrome” Memory is organized in a way that makes recognition easy Multiple Choice Info is often linked to many different categories/items in memory. The more links the better * Travel the road frequently
Recall The active reconstruction of information More remarkable than recognition Involves knowledge, attitudes and expectations etc.
Confabulation When a person re-remembers parts of a memory/experience and fills in the gaps by making up the rest
Eidetic Memory “Photographic Memory” Incredible and rare
Forgetting When information that once entered long term memory can’t be retrieved, it is said to be forgotten Physical damage does permanently remove memories
Short term and sensory storage quickly fade away or decay Still uncertain if long term memories ever decay away Some forgotten info can be retrieved through hypnosis, medication, and brain stimulation which suggests that they do not decay
Forgetting may be due to… Amnesia Interference repression
Amnesia Loss of memory functional (mental trauma) Organic (brain injury)
Interference Memory being blocked by previous or succeeding memories Proactive – earlier memory does the blocking Retroactive – later memory does the blocking
Repression Subconscious blocking of memories that are painful, unpleasant or undesirable Defense mechanism
Improving Memory Techniques are based on efficient organization of the things one learns and chunking information for easier handling
Four Strong Influences on our ability to retrieve Meaningfulness The more meaningful something is, the easier it will be to remember Association More vivid memories when linked with items previously stored
Lack of Interference Good way to protect mind from this is to over-learn. Practice, practice, practice The more senses involved the better
Degree of original Learning The better you learn something the first time, the more information you’ll likely recall
Mnemonic Devices Techniques for using associations to memorize information Ex: every good boy does fine (or deserves fudge) Form mental pictures
Thinking & Factors Four units of thought: 1. image 2. symbol 3. concept 4. rule *creativity
Output *the ideas and actions that result from our central processing. Retrieval: 1.recognition 2.Recall *confabulation *eidetic memory