5 MAINTENANCE vs. ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL Even though you live in the United States and probably see hundreds of pennies a week, it is difficult to identify the real one from fake ones. Mere repetition, such as seeing something over and over again does not guarantee a strong memory.Maintenance Rehearsal = repetitionElaborative Rehearsal = linking new information to material that is already knownImproves your chances of remembering it!!!!
6 Short-Term or Working Memory Use it or lose it!!!!!Working with information…..Chunking = Grouping items to make them easier to remember
7 Short-Term or Working Memory Use it or lose it!!!!!Working with information…..Mnemonic Devices = Techniques for using associations to memorize and retrieve information
9 Long-Term Memory Types of Long-Term Memory Episodic memory – memory of our own life (Personal facts)Semantic memory – knowledge of language, including rules, words, and meaningsDeclarative memory – Stored knowledge called forth consciously as needed; includes episodic and semanticProcedural memory – As we gain a skill, we gradually lose the ability to describe what we are doing.Procedural memory – Storage of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection
10 Memory and the BrainWe are still learning about the role of the brain in MEMORY. To what extent the brain isinvolved is still beingdetermined.
11 Retrieving Information Key = Organization of info in LTMRecognition: the ability to pick the correct object or event from a list of choicesRecall: the ability to bring back and integrate many specific learned detailsThe brain IS NOT a video recorderReconstructive Processes: the alteration of a recalled memory depending on experiences and attitudes
12 FACT: 59-year-old Akira Haraguchi recited from memory the first 83,431 decimal places of pi, earning a spot in the Guinness World Records.FACT: Super card sharks can memorize the order of a shuffled deck of cards in less than a minuteFACT: According to evidence, it's impossible to recall images with near perfect accuracyPhotographic memory – ability to form sharp, detailed visual images of a picture or page and to recall exactly what you saw.Alan Searleman, a professor of psychology at St. Lawrence University in New York, says eidetic imagery comes closest to being photographic. When shown an unfamiliar image for 30 seconds, so-called "eidetikers" can vividly describe the image—for example, how many petals are on a flower in a garden scene. They report "seeing" the image, and their eyes appear to scan across the image as they describe it. Still, their reports sometimes contain errors, and their accuracy fades after just a few minutes. Says Searleman, "If they were truly 'photographic' in nature, you wouldn't expect any errors at all."DOES IT EXIST?
13 Eidetic Memory – The ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure5% of childrenVery rare in adults
14 Eyewitness Testimony It is often wrong Involves recognition Memory of event is often distortedEyewitnesses can be misled by questioning
15 FORGETTING Types Decay – fading away of memory over time Amnesia – loss of memory as a result of a blow to head or brain damage. Other causes: Stress/DrugsInterference – blockage of a memory by previous or subsequent memories or loss of a retrieval cueProcedural memory – As we gain a skill, we gradually lose the ability to describe what we are doing.Proactive Interference: prior learning interferes with learning new informationRetroactive Interference: newly learned information interferes with previously learned information
16 DID YOU KNOW!Flashbulb Memories are vivid recollections of events that are shocking or emotionalThe SQ3R method of studying improves your ability to recognize and recall information
18 INTELLIGENCEThe ability to acquire new ideas and new behavior, and to adapt to new situations.Different views on Intelligence existEmotional Intelligence: The ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions.Two-Factor Theory: Intelligence includes a general ability (g) level and specific mental abilities (s)Emotional Intelligence has been linked to success in the real world but it’s exact role is still not clearly understoodTwo-Factor Theory: Critics argue that g does not measure other kinds of mental abilities and intelligence cannot be reduced to just g.Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory: Critics argue that many of Gardner’s intelligence’s are actually skills. They argue that intelligence and talent (skill) are two different things.Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory: Numerous (8) and unrelated intelligences
20 INTELLIGENCE TESTMeasure IQ, or a standardized measure of intelligence based on a scale of which 100 is averageStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale:Originally meant for children; adapted for adultsGroups test items by age level100 is average for given ageWechsler Tests:More common todayThree versions (2-6, 6-16, 16-89)More detailed scoring
21 IQ SCORES – What do they mean? Average score is 100Traditionally 70 or below = mentally handicappedGood indicator of success in schoolDo not predict success in the real worldNature v. Nurture: Both genetic factors & the environment play a role in IQ. The % each contributes is debatable.Cultural Bias: wording used in questions may be more familiar to people or one social group than to another group