Presentation on theme: "Didjaredit? 1.Tertullian believed reason was a necessary part of faith, otherwise we would wrongly believe in the absurd. True or false? 2.What did Tertullian."— Presentation transcript:
Didjaredit? 1.Tertullian believed reason was a necessary part of faith, otherwise we would wrongly believe in the absurd. True or false? 2.What did Tertullian mean when he quipped, “What has Athens to do with Jerusalem?” 3.Tertullian compared the blood of martyrs to a _________ which caused the Church to grow. 4.Tertullian was gentle and soft-spoken. True or false? 5.Tertullian first used the word ___________ in referring to God in Christian Theology. 6.Tertullian became a heretic. What was the name of the heresy he embraced? 7.Tertullian’s famous “Apology” quoted, “See how the ___________ love one another?!”
Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus Tertullian c. 160 – c. 225 AD. Thought to be the son of a Roman centurion, a trained lawyer. Some thought he was a priest, but really was probably a married layman. He was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa. \He is the first Christian author to produce an extensive corpus of Latin Christian literature. He also was a notable early Christian apologist and a polemicist against heresy. Tertullian has been called "the father of Latin Christianity” However, unlike many Church fathers, he was never canonized by the Catholic Church, as several of his later teachings directly contradicted the actions and teachings of the apostles.
His Teachings Though conservative, he did originate and advance new theology to the early Church. He is perhaps most famous for being the oldest extant Latin writer to use the term Trinity (Latin, trinitas) Tertullian did not think Christine doctrine should be in anyway related or explained through pagan philosophy. He said the Trinity is to be believed in because it “is absurd.” “WHAT INDEED DOES ATHENS HAVE TO DO WITH JERUSALEM?” – human wisdom = corrupt. Seemed to taunt persecutors to persecute more – believed the “Blood of Christians is seed” to the Church.
In middle life (about 207), he was attracted to the "New Prophecy" of Montanism, and seems to have split from the mainstream church. His disgust with sinful Christians led him to demand a “purer” Church. This led him under influence of Monantists where he finally founded his own sect. In the time of Augustine, a group of "Tertullianists" still had a basilica in Carthage which, within that same period, passed to the orthodox Church. It is unclear whether the name was merely another for the Montanists or that this means Tertullian later split with the Montanists and founded his own group.
In spite of his schism from the Church, he continued to write against heresy, especially Gnosticism. Thus, by the doctrinal works he published, Tertullian became the teacher of Cyprian and the predecessor of Augustine, who, in turn, became the chief founder of Latin theology. Tertullian's writings cover the whole theological field of the time—; they gave a picture of the religious life and thought of the time which is of the greatest interest to the church historian. Jerome says that Tertullian lived to a great age, but there is no reliable source attesting to his survival beyond the estimated year 225 AD.
Montanism Montanus lived in the Phrygian area of Asia Minor at the back end of the 2nd Century AD. He declared that the Holy Spirit was giving new revelations to the church, and named himself and two women, Priscilla and Maximilla, as prophets, although there were others. This was referred to as the New Prophecy. They believed their visions and ecstasies superseded the teaching of the Church. The emphases of the New Prophecy seem to have been on resisting persecution, fasting, and avoiding remarriage, together with hostility to any compromise with sin. No forgiveness was allowed.
Tertullian Hated the “Spectacles” He exhorted Christians to renounce all Roman spectacles – ‘the madness of the circus, the immodesty of the theater, the atrocities of the arena, the useless exercises of the wrestling ground…” About 230 Roman amphitheatres have been found across the area of the Roman Empire. Their typical shape, functions and name distinguish them from Roman theatres, which are usually semicircular in shape; from the circuses whose much longer circuits were designed mainly for horse or chariot racing events; and from the smaller stadia, which were primarily designed for athletics and footraces.
ROMAN THEATER ORANGE – STILL USED TODAY! LOCATED IN VALLEY OF RHONE
Sports Wrestling and boxing were popular sports that were usually practiced in thepalaestra (a central field) of Roman baths. Both helped to improve overall fitness and build strength and stamina, and they were generally enjoyed by many Romans. Because there were no boxing gloves, athletes tightly wrapped their hands in layers of cloth.
Ancient Roman Baths of Caracalla still exists today as a museum. They had hot/cold baths and steam rooms.
Roman Theater The theatre of ancient Romewas a diverse and interesting art form, ranging from festival performances of street theater and acrobatics to comedies and tragedies. Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the 3rd century BC had a profound and energizing effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage. The Theaters held thousands of spectators – some up to 60,000!
Roman actors had bad reputations and their morals challenged even the decadence of Roman society. Their performances could be lewd, highly sexual and offensive, and they sometimes even appeared naked on stage and engaged in sexual acts. They could also be highly critical of the political status quo. As expected, some emperors were as critical of them and took certain measures in an attempt to counteract their influence: Emperor Julian the Apostate forbade the pagan Roman priests from attending theatrical performances to avoid giving the performances respectability, and the more enlightened Emperor Tiberius would not allow people of the stage to have any contact with the upper classes. The theater was considered the shrine of Venus (a Roman god). By the fifth century (the 400s) actors were excommunicated by the Church. This ruling held in parts of Europe until the 18th century!
Most Roman plays were whimsical, more mimes and pantomimes than drama; the "classics" were in the minority. In the early Roman Republic (before the emperors emerged after Julius Caesar), women did not enter the profession; it was considered inappropriate for them. Therefore young boys or men often played the parts of women in the dramas. Because the actors were not respected citizens, it could be a dangerous occupation. When the Romans saw a play they did not like, they shouted at the actors and told them to get off the stage. If they did not get off the stage, the audience might begin to throw things at them.
Each actor played several roles. They wore simple costumes that could be changed quickly and in public. The actors held up happy face masks and sad faced masks, to help the audience understand what was going on in the play. Over time, masks became very elaborate. During the play, the Roman people would talk to each other. Because it was noisy, sometimes people would raise their voices so they could be heard. That made it even more noisy. So that everyone could follow along with the story told by the actors, no matter how noisy the crowd became, the actors would sometimes use a technique called pantomime. Pantomime is a play without words. The actors used dance, music, hand gestures, facial expressions, elaborate sets, and costumes to present the play. Orchesta & music were part of performance : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=COpe-Nq6QaY
We have 33 Greek plays, 36 Roman plays and more than 400 Greco-Roman Theatres in Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia -- anywhere the Roman Empire established a protectorate. Plays were only performed during religious ceremonies and religious festivals. However, since the ancient Romans celebrated over 200 holidays a year, there were many opportunities for plays to be staged. Someone had to pay for the play, as actors received a small fee. Usually a wealthy noble would pay the bill, in honor of the gods, and give the play to the people as a gift.