II. Greek Dark Age: B.C. Collapse of agricultural production Decline in number of farmers Volcano Changes in Greek World – Migration east across the Aegean Sea Ionian Aeolian
III. Greek City-States: B.C. (Archaic period) Polis Citadel Villages clustered around fortifications Towns – ruled by monarch and oligarch Polis is a small but autonomous political unit in which all major political, social, and religious activities are carried out in a central location Citizenship to males only
Gender and Power Women played little role Greek attitudes toward women and sexuality Isolation property good mothers and obedient wives not friends or partners Friendship existed only between members of same sex. Women in public were usually prostitutes No judgment or condemnation
Myth and Reason Explanations! Lineage Titans –Cronus who was de-throned by his son Zeus. Gaea, Uranus, Rhea, Oceanus, Tethys, Hyperion, Mnemosyne (Zeus married), Iapetus, Coeus, Crius, Phoebe, Themis (Zeus married), Prometheus, Epimetheus, Atlas, Metis (Zeus married), Dione. Olympians Zeus was the head god. All the Olympians are related in some way. They are named after their dwelling place, Mount Olympus. Poseidon, Hades (brothers of Zeus). Hestia, Hera (Zeus married), Ares, Athena, Apollo, Aphrodite, Hermes, Artemis, Hephaestus. The Others – demi sort of: Asclepius, Demeter, Persephone, Dionysus, Eros, Hebe, Eris, Helius, Thanatos, Pan, Nemesis, The Graces, The Muses, The Erinyes, The Fates. Don’t write all names down
Colonization and the Rise of Tyrants Colonization Overpopulation Trade and commerce Colonies founded as polis Cultural diffusion Tyrants A tyrant was someone who came to rule by unconstitutional ways in 7 th and 6 th centuries B.C.E. – coup d’etat. Not subject to laws. Support came from the new rich Poor peasants becoming indebted to landholding aristocrats rose up Power maintained by mercenaries. Extinguished by end of 6 th century B.C.E.
IV. Tale of Three Cities a) Sparta Location: Southwestern Peloponnesus Lacked: Land Military History: 740 BC - conquered neighboring Laconia and Messenia, Military society Citizenship Women Children: Government –Lycurgus Two kings share power gerousia (council of 28 elders over the age of 60 serving for life) Apella (assembly of all male citizens)
b) Corinth Geography: Economic: wealthiest Trade Pottery Middlemen from east and west. Legal: Population:
Social: Political: Oligarch – initially Bacchiads (Dark Ages) 650 BC Cypselus Liked by people Corinth was divided into 8 tribes by Cypselus from each 10 men chosen to represent tribe Military: Navy – strongest navy in Aegean and Adriatic.
Political: Unites surrounding area of Attica into single polis Ruled by aristocratic clan – Alcmeonids circa 630s BC Krylon 650 – 621BC 621 BC 594 BC Solon –canceled all debts, outlawed new loans based on human collateral, freed people who had fallen into slavery for debts –Political control opened to TWO TOP social groups instead of just those by birthright and within certain clan –Devised a constitution which lasted 80 years –Did not initiate land redistribution
Pisistratus (and son Hippias) seize power in 560 B.C. Clean water through terra coptta pipe system, rebuilt temple of Athena, public halls, increased civic pride and provided work for the poor Hippias expelled in 510 –REVENGE OF HIPPIAS and the Persians Aristocrats attempt to seize power Beginning of Athenian democracy (circa 508 – 450 BC) Cleisthenes seized power in 508 B.C.E. Creates Council of 500 that was responsible for the administration of foreign and financial affairs Pericles B.C.
Military: 520 B.C. Persia completes the occupation of Ionia. 498 – 468, Persian Wars 478/477 B.C. Athens takes the lead in forming the Delos Confederacy. The fortification of Athens are built. 468 B.C. Leading forces of the Delian confederacy 448 B.C. The Athenian Empire reaches it apex. 446 B.C. Thirty-year truce between the Athenians and Peloponnesians. 431 BC – Peloponnesian War 413 Athenian Navy defeated 404 BC – Athens falls to Sparta Religious Olympic games 776 BC Zeus Temples – important.
V. Classical Greece I. The Challenge of Persia During 2 nd half of 6 th century, Persian empire expanding and absorbing, including in and around Athens. Unsuccessful revolt of Ionian cities – wildfire of democracy spread to Ionia, but ill fated, even with aid from Athens and Eretria. Darius ( B.C.E.) Opposition / Revolts Battle of Marathon, 490 B.C.E. Persians 48,000. Greeks 12,000 On 9 th day of battle – 10,000 Athenians advanced on Persians. Persians fled 192 Greeks versus over 6400 Persians killed. Destroyed myth of Persian invincibility
Xerxes ( B.C.E.) Invasion of Greece, B.C.E. By 480 B.C - approximately 100,000 to 180,000 men fleet of nearly 600 ships Greek plan – fall back to Thermopylae –Battle of Thermopylae, 480 B.C.E. Persians reach Athens and sack and burn it. Sea battles - –Battle of Salamis, 480 B.C.E. –Battle of Plataea, 479 B.C.E. Greeks developed skills in battle – naval and hoplite movements during battles with Xerxes. By 479 –Athens emerges as leader of Greek world
II. The Athenian Empire in the Age of Pericles End of Persian wars marks beginning of classical period. Delian League formed B.C.E. Aegean Pericles Expanded democracy at home and an empire abroad Elected to generalship 30 times Built the Parthenon on the Acropolis
III. The Great Peloponnesian War and the Decline of the Greek States ( B.C.E.) Athens stays behind its walls Plague in 429 B.C.E. Battle of Aegospotami, 405 B.C.E. Surrender of Athens, 404 B.C IV. Culture of Classical Greece I. History Systematic analysis of the past Herodotus (c B.C.E.), History of the Persian Wars Thucydides (c B.C.E.), History of the Peloponnesian War
II. Drama Created by the Greeks Tragedians –Aeschylus ( B.C.E.) –Sophocles (c B.C.E.) –Euripides (c B.C.E.) Tragedy –Nature of good and evil Comedy –Satire politicians and intellectuals –Aristophanes (c. 450-c. 385 B.C.E.) III. The Arts: The Classical Ideal Architecture –Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns –Temples – important. Open, not enclosed. –Parthenon Sculpture –Subjects of male nudity –No longer stiff –Proportional and life-like
VI. The Greek Love of Wisdom Philosophy meant “love of wisdom” Sophists Socrates ( B.C.) (Sophist) Plato ( B.C.) (Student of Socrates) The Republic The Academy Aristotle ( B.C.) (Student of Plato) Politics
VII.Greek Religion Infused into their daily lives, every aspect Ritual more important than belief. No body of doctrine or focus on morality Sacrifices and Festivals Mount Olympus Homer’s work
VIII. Daily Life in Classical Athens 180,000 citizens, 43,000 of which were adult males who exercised political power, 35,000 foreigners. Family the central institution Women Males - Paterfamilias Slavery
IX. Rise of Macedonia and the Alexander Philip II ( B.C.E.) –Greeks crushed in 338 B.C.E. at the Battle of Chaeronea –The freedom of the Greek cities had already come to an end during the Third Sacred War ( ).
X. Alexander the Great Born: 356. Philip II and Olympias Educated: Sciences, Homer, Herodotus, Xenophon, Aristotle – taught physics, meteorology, geography, theology Military: 336 BC – Philip stirred anti Persian sentiment from 150 yrs prior Alexander crowned Attacks the Persian Empire Battle of Granicus River, 334 B.C.E. Battle of Issus, 333 B.C.E reached Egypt – welcomed as liberator, took title of Pharoh.
Battle of Gaugamela, 331 B.C. Persepolis, 330 B.C. India, 327 B.C. Battle of Hydaspes River, 326 B.C. Soldiers refuse to go on Death June 11, 323. Philip Arridaeus. Perdiccas – War between generals, revolts. Settlement: Ptolemy Seleucus Peithon Arridaeus Antigonus Monophtalmus Antipater
The Legacy of Alexander Hellenistic Age (“to imitate Greeks”) Empire divided Greek autonomy Wealth used for cities and infrastructure Policies remained similar if not same, while faces changed. Monarchy Culture Art, architecture, language, literature Cities
(1) New military technology (brought from Sicily) spear (2) Wide use of bribery on friendly parties in Greek poleis (3) The League Against the Persians revived by King Philip (338/7) as a way of 'uniting' the Greeks under himself (as 'hegemon': commander-in-chief) to fight the Persians (at least that's what he said). Forced Greek unity in violation of eleutheria ('liberty'). (4) Crusade of Hellenes against Asia (Philip and Alexander): expands the idea of what is Greek and brings Greeks into contact and gives them dominion over many other (older) civilizations (5) Colonies of military veterans: urbanization (6) New religious cults and attitudes change the basic ideas of the Greek polis religion, as well as the meaning of life and death, reward and punishment (dualism of Mesopotamian Zoroastrianism) 7) Alexander's policy of intermarrying himself and his chieftains with members of the Iranian aristocracies of the Persian empire (e.g. Alexander himself and Roxane from Bactria/Afghanistan) (8) Alexander's policy of founding new cities (32 ALEXANDRIAS): Greek language, Greek architecture, Greek gymnasium culture, Greek political institutions, but very mixed and mostly non- Greek citizens. The definition of 'Hellene/Greek' is no longer racial, ethnic, national-family, or even cultural in a natural develomental sense. 'Hellene' is a cultural term thereafter, but anybody can be a Hellene by adapting. (9) Appearance in Greek cities of new artifacts, ideas, habits from other civilizations: new interpretations of reality (Aristotle)
XI. The Hellenistic Kingdoms New dynasties created Macedonia under the Antigonid dynasty Syria and the east under the Seleucids Attalid kingdom of Pergamum in western Asia Minor Egypt under the Ptolemies Hellenizing an urban phenomenon Economic: Agriculture (80% devoted to farming) Money Economy Wealth in hands of few Forests stripped of wood Trade Routes Industry spread Textile centers Glass and silver crafts
Religion: Still had gods BUT decline in vitality of the myths and faith Mystery religions impacted Greeks Women: Opportunities increased – upper class women Managed slaves Sold property Contracted loans More independent
XII. Culture in the Hellenistic World Literature, Art, Sciences, philosophy Pergamum and Alexandria Library at Alexandria – largest in ancient times (1/2 million scrolls) Golden Age of Science Archimedes ( B.C) Philosophy Headquartered at Athens. Epicurian: –Epicurus ( B.C.) Stoic: –Zeno ( B.C.)
XIII. Conclusion and Summary New cities arose New religions arose New ideas about space, literature and our place in universe Greek culture spread