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ANCIENT GREECE PART 3 LATE CLASSICAL AND HELLENISTIC ART EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA.

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Presentation on theme: "ANCIENT GREECE PART 3 LATE CLASSICAL AND HELLENISTIC ART EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANCIENT GREECE PART 3 LATE CLASSICAL AND HELLENISTIC ART EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

2 LATE CLASSICAL ART 404 – 323 B.C.E  PELOPPONESIAN WAR B.C.E. – DEFEAT OF ATHENS  CONQUEST BY PHILIP II OF MACEDON 338 B.C.E.  DEATH OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT 323 B.C.E. -30 B.C.E.  HELLENISTIC PERIOD (DIVISION OF HIS EMPIRE AMONG HIS GENERALS AND THEIR SUCCESSORS)

3  146 B.C.E.: ROMAN CONQUEST OF GREECE, ENDS HELLENISTIC ERA IN EUROPE  30 C.E.: JULIUS CAESAR’S CONQUEST OF EGYPT ENDED LAST HELLENSTIC GOVERNMENT RECALL – WE’VE SEEN HELLENISTIC ART IN OTHER PLACES AND WILL SEE MORE LATER.

4 CONTEXT: CIVILIZATIONS IN CRISIS AND DECLINE OFTEN PRODUCE GREAT PHILOSOPHIES, RELIGIONS, ART!

5 CONTEXT: ART OFTEN REFLECTS EMOTIONAL TENSIONS OF ITS ERA REMEMBER SENURET III, FROM EGYPT, MIDDLE KINGDOM, 12 TH DYNASTY © 1860 B.C.E.

6

7 INDEPENDENT SCULPTURE

8 PRAXITELES APHRODITE OF KNIDOS © B.C.E., ROMAN MARBLE COPY AFTER ATHENIAN ORIGINAL. (ALSO MARBLE), 6’ 8” HIGH. VATICAN MUSEUM WHAT’S NEW? SHE’S NUDE! FIRST KNOWN FEMALE MONUMENTAL NUDE ALSO MORE “HUMAN” GODDESS SENSATION IN THE ANCIENT WORLD – ONE OF THE MOST COPIED STATUES OF ANCIENT TIMES THIS COPY, “THE COLONNA VENUS” IS JUDGED TO BE VERY ACCURATE COPY

9 COLONNA VENUS AS SHE WAS DISPLAYED AT VATICAN MUSEUM UNTIL 1932 – WITH ADDED DRAPING FOR “MODESTY”

10 “THE KAUFMAN HEAD” – SUPPOSEDLY ACCURATE MODEL OF HEAD OF CNIDIAN VENUS. LOUVRE

11 PRAXITELES(?), HERMES AND THE INFANT DIONYSOS, FROM THE TEMPLE OF HERA, OLYMPIA. COPY OF A STATUE BY PRAXITELES OF © 340 BCE OR ORIGINAL WORK OF © 330–270 BCE BY A SON OR GRANDSON. MARBLE, 7’ 1” HIGH. ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, OLYMPIA NEW? EXTREME CONTRAPPOSTO - S-CURVE ADULT – INFANT INTERACTION

12 GRAVE STELE OF A YOUNG HUNTER © 340– 330 B.C.E. FOUND NEAR ILISSOS RIVER, ATHENS. MARBLE, 5’ 6” HIGH. NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, ATHENS. INFLUENCE OF? SKOPAS OF PAROS KNOWN FOR? INTENSE EMOTIONALISM

13 LYSIPPOS, APOXYOMENOS (SCRAPER) © 330 B.C.E. ROMAN MARBLE COPY OF BRONZE ORIGINAL 6’ 9 " HIGH. VATICAN MUSEUM WHAT’S NEW? NEW PROPORTIONS: HEAD ≈ 1/8 OF HEIGHT – LESS INTEREST OR LESS CONFIDENCE IN HUMAN PERFECTION ? HE’S “OUT OF THE BOX” BREAK FROM FRONTAL VIEW: STATUE DESIGNED TO BE VIEWED FROM ALL SIDES

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15 LYSIPPOS, WEARY HERAKLES (FARNESE HERAKLES). ROMAN MARBLE COPY BY GLYKON OF ATHENS, OF A BRONZE ORIGINAL © 320 BCE. 10’5” HIGH. MUSEO ARCHEOLOGICO NAZIONALE,NAPLES. THIS STATUE ORIGINALLY WAS LEANING ON HIS CLUB (IRONY, DEPICTION OF WEARINESS) STATUE NOT UNDERSTANDABLE UNLESS VIEWED FROM ALL SIDES (SEE NEXT SLIDE)

16 1592 SKETCH BY HENDRICK GOLTZIUS OF REAR OF FARNESE HERAKLES - HE HOLD APPLES OF HESPERIDES BEHIND HIS BACK DETAIL: FACE OF FARNESE HERAKLES

17 HEAD OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, FROM PELLA, GREECE, 3 rd CENTURY B.C.E. MARBLE, 1’ HIGH. ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, PELLA. IN STYLE OF, OR POSSIBLY BY, LYSIPPOS (ALEXANDER’S OFFICIAL PORTRAITIST) SO POSSIBLY ACCURATE PORTRAIT IN STYLE OF, OR POSSIBLY BY, LYSIPPOS (ALEXANDER’S OFFICIAL PORTRAITIST) SO POSSIBLY ACCURATE PORTRAIT

18 MOSAIC AND PAINTING

19 GNOSIS, STAG HUNT, FROM PELLA, GREECE © 300 B.C.E. PEBBLE MOSAIC, FIGURAL PANEL 10’ 2” HIGH. ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, PELLA FUNCTION? FLOOR WHAT’S NEW? MODELING SKIOGRAPHIA HAT’S PEBBLE MOSAIC? WHAT’S PEBBLE MOSAIC? RIVER STONES SET IN CEMENT W/ LEAD OR CLAY OUTLINES

20 HADES ABDUCTING PERSEPHONE, DETAIL OF WALL PAINTING FROM TOMB 1, VERGINA, GREECE, MID- FOURTH CENTURY BCE, 3’ 3 ½ ” WHAT’S SIGNIFICANT? MODELING, FORESHORTENING, “HUMAN” DRAMA

21

22 PHILOXENES OF ERETRIA, BATTLE OF ISSUS, EMBLEMA FROM THE HOUSE OF THE FAUN, POMPEI, ITALY © 310 B.C.E. TESSERA MOSAIC 8’ 10" X 16’ 9”. NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, NAPLES FORESHORTENING, MODELING, LIGHT, DRAMA

23 DETAIL, BATTLE OF ISSUS TESSERA MOSAIC MOSAIC MADE FROM TESSERAE = TILES IN ANCIENT ERA, TESSERAE WERE CUBICAL AND MADE FROM STONE

24 DETAIL, BATTLE OF ISSUS

25 ARCHITECTURE

26 POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER, CAVA (THEATER), EPIDAUROS, GREECE © 350 B.C.E. CUNEI THEATRON SKENE

27 THEODOROS OF PHOKAIA, THOLOS, DELPHI, GREECE, © 375 B.C.E. INTERNAL COLUMNS WERE CORINTHIAN

28 POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER, CORINTHIAN CAPITAL FROM EPIDAURUS THOLOS © 350 B.C.E. EPIDAURUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

29 CHORAGIC MONUMENT OF LYSIKRATES, ATHENS 334 B.C.E. MARBLE. EARIEST EXTANT EXAMPLE OF EXTERIOR CORINTHIAN CAPITALS THEY ARE ON? PILASTERS

30 DORIC ORDER IONIC ORDERCORINTHIAN STYLE

31 WHAT PROBLEM DID CORINTHIAN STYLES SOLVE? ASYMMETRY AT CORNERS!

32 HELLENISTIC GREEK ART 323 – 30 B.C.E.

33 EXAMPLES: HELLENISM IN AFGHANISTAN (BACTRIA) TOP, CORINTHIAN BUDDHA CAPITAL (4 TH C.) RIGHT, BUDDHA (7 TH C.) OUTSIDE OF GREEK WORLD, HELLENISM = CULTURAL SYNCHRETISM GREEK/ OTHER CULTURES

34 HELLENISTIC GREEK ARCHITECTURE

35

36 PAIONIOS OF EPHESOS AND DAPHNIS OF MILETOS, TEMPLE OF APOLLO, DIDYMA, TURKEY, BEGUN 313 B.C.E. (AERIAL VIEW) WHAT’S THE SAME AS CLASSICAL? COLUMNS: 10:21 – X = 2Y + 1 WHAT’S DIFFERENT? DIPTERAL (DOUBLE PERIPTERAL COLONNADE) HYPAETHAL – NO ROOF (EX. ON INNER TEMPLE) ATTENTION TO INTERIOR

37 PLAN OF TEMPLE OF APOLLO, DIDYMA

38 RESTORED VIEW OF THE CITY OF PRIENE, TURKEY, FOURTH CENTURY BCE AND LATER (JOHN BURGE). WHOSE INFLUENCE? HIPPODAMUS OF MILETOS – THIS ORTHOGANAL PLAN IS CALLED “HIPPODAMIAN”

39 RECONSTRUCTED STOA OF ATTALOS II, AGORA, ATHENS © 150 B.C.E. AGORA = OPEN SPACE = MARKETPLACE STOA = COVERED COLONNADE = PORTICO TODAY’S EQUIVALENT? SHOPPING MALL

40 RECONSTRUCTED STOA OF ATTALOS II

41 RECONSTRUCTED WEST FRONT OF THE ALTAR OF ZEUS, PERGAMON, TURKEY, ORIGINAL © 175 B.C.E. STAATLICHE MUSEEN, BERLIN

42 ATHENA BATTLING ALKYONEOS, DETAIL OF THE GIGANTOMACHY FRIEZE, FROM THE ALTAR OF ZEUS, PERGAMON, TURKEY © 175 B.C.E. MARBLE, 7’ 6” HIGH “PERGAMENE BAROQUE” DRAMA/ DIAGONALS, INTENSE EMOTION

43 DETAIL OF GIGANTOMACHY FRIEZE, PERGAMMON ALTAR

44 INDEPENDENT SCULPTURE

45 POLYEUKTOS, DEMOSTHENES. ROMAN MARBLE COPY OF A BRONZE ORIGINAL OF © 280 BCE. 6’ 7 1/2” HIGH. NY CARLSBERG GLYPTOTEK, COPENHAGEN. WHAT’S NEW? INDIVIDUALIZED, NON-HEROIC PORTRAITURE – SHOWS AGE

46 THE DYING GAULS FROM PERGAMON EPIGONOS(?), GALLIC CHIEFTAIN KILLING HIMSELF AND HIS WIFE. ROMAN MARBLE COPY OF A BRONZE ORIGINAL OF © 230–220 BCE, 6’ 11” HIGH. MUSEO NAZIONALE ROMANO–PALAZZO ALTEMPS, ROME. IN WHICH SCULPTOR’S TRADITION? LYSIPPOS – SCULPTURE OUT OF BOX AND MUST BE VIEWED FROM ALL SIDES

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48 EPIGONOS(?), DYING GAUL (TRUMPETER?). ROMAN MARBLE COPY OF A BRONZE ORIGINAL OF © 230–220 BCE, 3’ 1/2” HIGH. MUSEO CAPITOLINO, ROME.

49 WHAT IS THE MESSAGE OF THE DYING GAUL SCULPTURES? “DEATH BEFORE DISHONOR” “MAN UP!” “WE MUST BE VERY MIGHTY TO HAVE BEATEN THESE GUYS!”

50 NIKE ALIGHTING ON A WARSHIP NIKE OF SAMOTHRACE (NIKE ALIGHTING ON A WARSHIP), FROM SAMOTHRACE, GREECE © 190 B.C.E. MARBLE, FIGURE 8’ 1” HIGH. LOUVRE, PARIS. WHERE WAS SHE? IN A FOUNTAIN

51 NIKE OF SAMOTHRACE

52 © B.C.E. (VENUS DE MILO) ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER, APHRODITE FROM MELOS, GREECE © B.C.E. MARBLE, 6’7” HIGH WHAT’S NEW? OVERT SEXUALITY! “THERE IS A MYSTERY IN WHAT’S HIDDEN.” RICHARD M. NIXON

53 VENUS DE MILO

54 APHRODITE, EROS AND PAN FROM DELOS, GREECE © 100 B.C.E. MARBLE, 52” HIGH. NATIONAL MUSEUM, ATHENS

55 BARBERINI FAUN (SLEEPING SATYR), FOUND IN ROME, RESTORED BY BERNINI © B.C.E. MARBLE 7’ 1” HIGH. GLYPTOTHEK, MUNICH WHAT’S REMARKABLE? EROTICISM HE’S “SLEEPING” (PASSED OUT) NOTE HELLENISTIC INTEREST IN SLEEP, DREAMS – DUALISM

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57 SEATED BOXER, FOUND IN ROME, ITALY, © 100–50 B.C.E. BRONZE, 4’ 2” HIGH. MUSEO NAZIONALE ROMANO. NOTE: LOSER, NOT WINNER BROKEN NOSE, CAULIFLOWER EAR, BATTERED HANDS ANTI-HEROIC -- ANTITHESIS OF CLASSICISM

58 OLD MARKET WOMAN © B.C.E. MARBLE, 4’ ½” HIGH. MET. ONE OF MANY LATE HELLENISTIC STATUES OF OLD PEOPLE, INCLUDING OLD PEOPLE IN LOW SOCIAL CLASSES

59 ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, AND POLYDOROS OF RHODES, LAOCOÖN AND HIS SONS, FROM ROME, EARLT 1ST CENTURY C.E. MARBLE, 7’10” HIGH. VATICAN MUSEUM

60 DETAIL OF THE LAOCOÖN

61 ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, AND POLYDOROS OF RHODES, HEAD OF ODYSSEUS, FROM SPERLONGA, ITALY, EARLY FIRST CENTURY CE. MARBLE, 2’ 1 1/4” HIGH. MUSEO ARCHEOLOGICO, SPERLONGA.


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