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1 Early and High Classical periods page 124 Get art book and stack of powerpoints


3 Figure 5-28 page Dying Warrior, from the East Pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, 6′ 1″ long. Glyptothek, Munich. The eastern dying warrior already belongs to the Classical era. His posture is more natural, and he exhibits a new self-consciousness. Concerned with his own pain, he does not face the viewer.

4 Early and High Classical Art ca. 480–400 BCE The Classical period opened with the Persian sack of the Athenian Acropolis in 480 BCE and the Greek victory a year later. During the Early Classical period (480–450 BCE), sculptors revolutionized statuary by introducing contrapposto (weight shift) to their figures. In the High Classical period (450–400 BCE), Polykleitos developed a canon of proportions for the perfect statue. Iktinos similarly applied mathematical formulas to temple design in the belief that beauty resulted from the use of harmonic numbers. Under the patronage of Pericles and the artistic directorship of Phidias, the Athenians rebuilt the Acropolis after 447 BCE. The Parthenon, Phidias’s statue of Athena Parthenos, and the works of Polykleitos have defined what it means to be “Classical” ever since. Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, ca. 350–340 BCE

5 5-29Temple of Hera II or Apollo (Looking Northeast), Paestum, Italy, ca. 460 BCE

6 5-30Chariot Race of Pelops and Oinomaos, East Pediment, Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, 87′ Wide. Archaeological Museum, Olympia. The east pediment of the Zeus temple depicts the legendary chariot race across the Peloponnesos from Olympia to Corinth. The actors in the pediment faced the starting point of Olympic chariot races.

7 5-31Seer, From the East Pediment (Fig. 5-30) of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, 4′ 6″ High. Archaeological Museum, Olympia. The balding seer in the Olympia east pediment is a rare depiction of old age in Classical sculpture. He has a shocked expression because he foresees the tragic outcome of the chariot race.

8 5-32Apollo, from the West Pediment (Fig. 5-32A) of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, Restored Height 10′ 8″. Archaeological Museum, Olympia. The epitome of calm rationality, Apollo, with a commanding gesture of his right hand, attempts to bring order out of the chaotic struggle all around him between the Lapiths and the beastly centaurs

9 Title: Apollo with Battling Lapiths and Centaurs Medium: Marble Size: height of Apollo 10'8" (3.25 m) Date: c.470– 460 BCE Source: Fragments of sculpture from the west pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia

10 5-32AWest pediment, Temple of Zeus, Olympia, ca. 470–456 BCE Vanni/Art Resource, NY; Religion and Mythology

11 5-33Athena, Herakles, and Atlas with the Apples of the Hesperides, Metope from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, 5′ 3″ High. Archaeological Museum, Olympia. Herakles founded the Olympic Games, and his 12 labors were the subjects of the 12 metopes of the Zeus temple. This one shows the hero holding up the world (with Athena’s aid) for Atlas.

12 5-34Kritios Boy, From the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, 2′ 10″ High. Acropolis Museum, Athens. This is the first statue to show how a person naturally stands. The sculptor depicted the weight shift from one leg to the other (contrapposto). The head turns slightly, and the Archaic smile is gone.

13 Title: Kritian Boy Medium: Marble Size: height 3'10" (1.17 m) Date: c. 480 BCE Source/Museum: From Acropolis, Athens

14 5-35Warrior, from the Sea Off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6′ 6″ High. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Reggio Calabria. The bronze Riace warrior statue has inlaid eyes, silver teeth and eyelashes, and copper lips and nipples (FIG. 1-17). The contrapposto is more pronounced than in the Kritios Boy (FIG. 5-34).

15 Title: Warrior A (front) Medium: Bronze with bone and glass eyes, silver teeth, and copper lips and nipples Size: height 6'9" (2.05 m) Date: c. 460–450 BCE Source/Museum: Found in the sea off Riace, Italy


17 Drawing a shows a clay mold (investment), wax model, and clay core connected by chaplets. Drawing b shows the wax melted out and the molten bronze poured into the mold to form the cast bronze head. 5-37Charioteer, from a Group Dedicated by Polyzalos of Gela in the Sanctuary of Apollo (Fig A), Delphi, Greece, ca. 470 BCE. Bronze, 5′ 11″ High. Archaeological Museum, Delphi. The charioteer was part of a large bronze group that also included a chariot, a team of horses, and a groom. The assemblage required hundreds of individually cast pieces soldered together. hp?51186#.VCwgqxbp_Yg

18 Title: Charioteer Medium: Bronze, copper (lips and lashes), silver (hand), onyx (eyes) Size: height 5'11" (1.8 m) Date: c. 470 BCE Source/Museum: From the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi


20 5-38Zeus (or Poseidon?), from the Sea off Cape Artemision, Greece, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6′ 10″ High. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. In this statue, the god—probably Zeus hurling a thunderbolt— boldly extends both arms and raises his right heel off the ground, underscoring the lightness and stability of hollow-cast bronze statues.


22 Zeus (or Poseidon?) from the sea off Cape Artemision, Greece ca B.C.E. bronze 82 in. high

23 5-39Myron, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower). Roman Copy of a Bronze Statue of ca. 450 BCE. Marble, 5′ 1″ High. Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme. This marble copy of Myron’s lost bronze statue captures how the sculptor froze the action of discus throwing and arranged the nude athlete’s body and limbs so they form two intersecting arcs.

24 Artist: Myron Title: Discus Thrower (Diskobolos) Medium: Marble Size: height 5'11" Date: Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 450 BCE Source/Museum: National Museum, Rome

25 Polykleitos’s Prescription for the Perfect Statue 5-40Polykleitos, Doryphoros(Spear Bearer). Roman Copy from the Palaestra, Pompeii, Italy, of a Bronze Statue of ca. 450–440 BCE. Marble, 6′ 11″ High. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. Polykleitos sought to portray the perfect man and to impose order on human movement. He achieved his goals through harmonic proportions and a system of cross balance for all parts of the body.

26 Artist: Polykleitos Title: Spear Bearer (Doryphoros), also known as Achilles Medium: Marble (tree trunk and brace strut are Roman additions) Size: height 6'11" (2.12 m) Date: Roman copy after the original bronze of c. 450–440 BCE


28 The contrapposto position is when a person stands in a relaxed manner resting his weight on one leg. To stand in a contrapposto pose is to stand in a position of asymmetrical balance. This is to say the body is in balance but the forms of the figure do not line up equally. This is because though the body is balanced, as to not to fall over, but the weight is not evenly distributed throughout the body. The body moves in certain ways to naturally balance its weight against the forces of gravity. In this pose, the positioning of the shoulders and hips are used to balance the torso as we stand. The hips and shoulders are in positions that are angled in opposing directions. That is, if the left shoulder is higher than the right shoulder, the left side of hips will be lower than the right side of the hips.


30 Portrait of Pericles 5-41Kresilas, Pericles. Roman Herm Copy of the Head of a Bronze Statue of ca. 429 BCE. Marble, Full Herm 6′ High; Detail 4′ 6½″ High. Musei Vaticani, Rome. In his portrait of Pericles, Kresilas was said to have made a noble man appear even nobler. Classical Greek portraits were not likenesses but idealized images in which humans appeared godlike.


32 5-42Aerial view of the Acropolis (Looking Southeast), Athens, Greece. Under the leadership of Pericles, the Athenians undertook the costly project of reconstructing the Acropolis after the Persian sack of 480 BCE. The funds came from the Delian League treasury.


34 5-43Restored View of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece (John Burge). (1) Parthenon, (2) Propylaia, (3) pinakotheke, (4) Erechtheion, (5) Temple of Athena Nike. Of the four main fifth-century BCE buildings on the Acropolis, the first to be erected was the Parthenon, followed by the Propylaia, the Erechtheion, and the Temple of Athena Nike.

35 5-44Iktinos and Kallikrates, East Facade of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447–438 BCE. Iktinos believed harmonic proportions produced beautiful buildings. In the Parthenon, the ratio of larger and smaller parts is x = 2y + 1 (8 columns on the facade, 17 on the side


37 5-45Plan of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, with Diagram of the Sculptural Program (After Andrew Stewart), 447–432 BCE A team of sculptors directed by Phidias lavishly decorated the Parthenon with statues in both pediments, figural reliefs in all 92 Doric metopes, and an inner 524-foot sculptured Ionic frieze.


39 5-46Phidias, Athena Parthenos, in the Cella of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438 BCE. Model of the Lost Chryselephantine Statue. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. Inside the cella of the Parthenon stood Phidias’s 38-foot-tall gold-and-ivory Athena Parthenos (the Virgin). The goddess is fully armed and holds Nike (Victory) in her extended right hand.


41 Artist: Alan LeQuire Title: Athena, the Parthenon, Nashville Tennessee. Recreation of Pheidias’s Huge Gold and Ivory Figure. Medium: Gypsum concrete and chopped fiberglass on structural steel, Painted to simulate marble with lapis lazuli eyes by Alan LeQuire and gilded under the direction of master gilder Lou Reed. Size: height 41' 10" Date: 1982–1990

42 Metopes 5-47Centauromachy, Metope from the South Side of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 447–438 BCE. Marble, 4′ 8″ High. British Museum, London. The Parthenon’s centauromachy metopes allude to the Greek defeat of the Persians. Here, the sculptor brilliantly distinguished the vibrant living centaur from the lifeless Greek corpse.


44 Title: Lapith Fighting A Centaur Medium: Marble Size: height 56" (1.42 m) Date: c. 447– 432 BCE Source/Museum: Metope relief from the Doric frieze on the south side of the Parthenon




48 Pediment Title: Photographic mock-up of the east pediment of the Parthenon Size: The pediment is over 90 feet (27.45 m) long; the central space of about 40 feet (12.2 m) is missing




52 5-48Helios and His Horses, and Dionysos (Herakles?), from the East pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, Greatest Height 4′ 3″. British Museum, London. The east pediment of the Parthenon depicts the birth of Athena. At the left, Helios and his horses emerge from the pediment’s floor, suggesting the sun rising above the horizon at dawn.


54 5-49Three Goddesses (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the East Pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, Greatest Height 4′ 5″. British Museum, London. The statues of Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite conform perfectly to the sloping right side of the Parthenon’s east pediment. The thin and heavy folds of the garments alternately reveal and conceal the body forms.

55 5-50Three Details of the Panathenaic Festival Procession Frieze, from the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca BCE. Marble, 3′ 6″ High. Top: Horsemen (North Frieze), British Museum, London. Center: Poseidon, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, and Eros (East Frieze), Acropolis Museum, Athens. Bottom: Elders and Maidens (East Frieze), Musee Du Louvre, Paris. The Parthenon’s Ionic frieze represents the Panathenaic procession of citizens on horseback and on foot under the gods’ watchful eyes. The temple celebrated the Athenians as much as Athena.

56 Title: Marshals and Young Women Medium: Marble Size: height 3'6" (1.08 m) Date: c. 447–432 BCE Source/Museum: Detail of the Procession, from the Ionic frieze on the east side of the Parthenon / Musée du Louvre, Paris

57 5-51Mnesikles, Propylaia (Looking Southwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 437–432 BCE Mnesikles disguised the change of ground level by splitting the Propylaia into eastern and western sections. Each facade resembles a Doric temple but with a wider space between the central columns.

58 5-53Plan of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE The asymmetrical form of the Erechtheion is unique for a Greek temple. It reflects the need to incorporate preexisting shrines into the plan, including those of the kings Erechtheus and Kekrops.

59 5-52Erechtheion (Looking Northwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE The Erechtheion is in many ways the antithesis of the Doric Parthenon directly across from it. An Ionic temple, it has some of the finest decorative details of any ancient Greek building.

60 5-54Caryatids of the South Porch of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE. Marble, 7′ 7″ High. The south porch of the Erechtheion features caryatids with contrapposto stances. They are updated versions of the Archaic caryatids of the porch of the Siphnian Treasury (FIG. 5-17) at Delphi.

61 Title: Erechtheion. View From The East. Porch of The Maidens At Left; North Porch Can Be Seen Through The Columns of The East Wall Date: 421–406 BCE Source/Museum: Acropolis, Athens




65 Temple of Athena Nike 5-55Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Nike (Looking Southwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 427– 424 BCE The Ionic temple at the entrance to the Acropolis is an unusual amphiprostyle building. It celebrates Athena as bringer of victory, and one of the friezes depicts the defeat of the Persians at Marathon

66 Artist: Kallikrates Title: Temple of Athena Nike Date: c. 425 BCE Source/Museum: Acropolis, Athens


68 5-56Nike Adjusting Her Sandal, from the South Side of the Parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 410 BCE. Marble, 3′ 6″ High. Acropolis Museum, Athens. Dozens of images of winged Victory adorned the parapet on three sides of the Athena Nike temple. The sculptor carved this Nike with garments that appear almost transparent.

69 Title: Nike (Victory) Adjusting Her Sandal Medium: Marble Size: height 3' 6" (1.06 m) Date: Last quarter of the 5th century (perhaps 410– 405) BCE Source/Museum: Fragment of relief decoration from the parapet (now destroyed), Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens

70 The Hegeso Stele 5-57Grave Stele of Hegeso, from the Dipylon Cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 400 BCE. Marble, 5′ 2″ High. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. On her tombstone, Hegeso examines jewelry from a box her servant girl holds. Mistress and maid share a serene moment out of daily life. Only the epitaph reveals that Hegeso is the one who died.

71 5-4d Painting 5-58Achilles Painter, Warrior Taking Leave of His Wife (Athenian White- Ground Lekythos), from Eretria, Greece, ca. 440 BCE. 1′ 5″ High. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. White-ground painters applied the colors after firing because most colored glazes could not withstand the kiln’s heat. The Achilles Painter here displayed his mastery at drawing an eye in profile. 5-58AReed Painter, Warrior Seated at His Tomb, ca. 410–400 BCE

72 White Ground vase

73 White Ground Vase Paintings

74 5-59Niobid Painter, Artemis and Apollo Slaying the Children of Niobe (Athenian Red-Figure Calyx Krater), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 450 BCE. 1′ 9″ High. Musée Du Louvre, Paris. The placement of figures on different levels in a landscape on this red-figure krater depicting the massacre of the Niobids reflects the compositions of the panel paintings of Polygnotos of Thasos.

75 5-60Phiale Painter, Hermes Bringing the Infant Dionysos to Papposilenos (Athenian White-Ground Calyx Krater), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 440–435 BCE. 1′ 2″ High. Musei Vaticani, Rome. In the Phiale Painter’s white-ground representation of Hermes and the infant Dionysos at Nysa, the use of diluted brown to color and shade the rocks may also reflect the work of Polygnotos.

76 5-61Youth diving, Cover Slab of the Tomb of the Diver, Tempe Del Prete Necropolis, Paestum, Italy, ca. 480– 470 BCE. Fresco, 3′ 4″ High. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Paestum. This tomb in Italy is a rare example of Classical mural painting. The diving scene most likely symbolizes the deceased’s plunge into the Underworld. The trees resemble those on the Niobid krater (FIG ).

77 Late Classical Art ca. 400–323 BCE In the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War, which ended in 404 BCE, Greek artists, though still adhering to the philosophy that humanity was the “measure of all things,” began to focus more on the real world of appearances than on the ideal world of perfect beings. Late Classical sculptors humanized the remote deities, athletes, and heroes of the fifth century BCE. Praxiteles, for example, caused a sensation when he portrayed Aphrodite undressed. Lysippos depicted Herakles as muscle-bound but so weary that he needed to lean on his club for support. In architecture, the ornate Corinthian capital became increasingly popular, breaking the monopoly of the Doric and Ionic orders. The period closed with Alexander the Great, who transformed the Mediterranean world politically and ushered in a new artistic age as well.

78 5-5 Late Classical Period 5-62Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman Copy of a Marble Statue of ca. 350–340 BCE. Marble, 6′ 8″ High. Musei Vaticani, Rome. This first nude statue of a Greek goddess caused a sensation. But Praxiteles was also famous for his ability to transform marble into soft and radiant flesh. His Aphrodite had “dewy eyes 5-62AHead of a Woman, Chios, ca. 320– 300 BCE


80 5-63Praxiteles(?), Hermes and the Infant Dionysos, from the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Copy of a Marble Statue by Praxiteles of ca. 340 BCE or an Original Work of ca. 330–270 BCE by a Son or Grandson. Marble, 7′ 1″ High. Archaeological Museum, Olympia. Praxiteles humanized the Olympian deities. This Hermes is as sensuous as the sculptor’s Aphrodite. The god gazes dreamily into space while he dangles grapes as temptation for the infant wine god.


82 5-63AArtist Painting a Statue of Herakles, ca. 350–320 BCE 5-64AHerakles, Temple of Athena Alea, Tegea, ca. 340 BCE Archaeological Receipts Fund; 5-64BMausoleum, Halikarnassos, ca. 353–340 BCE

83 5-64Grave Stele of a Young Hunter, Found Near the Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330 BCE. Marble, 5′ 6″ High. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. The emotional intensity of this stele representing an old man mourning the loss of his son and the figures’ large, deeply set eyes with fleshy overhanging brows reflect the style of Skopas of Paros.

84 5-65Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman Copy of a Bronze Statue of ca. 330 BCE. Marble, 6′ 9″ High. Musei Vaticani, Rome. Lysippos introduced a new canon of proportions and a nervous energy to his statues. He also broke down the dominance of the frontal view and encouraged viewing his statues from multiple angles.


86 5-66Lysippos, Weary Herakles (Farnese Hercules). Roman Statue from the Baths of Caracalla (FIG ), Rome, Italy, Signed by Glykon of Athens, Based on a Bronze Statue of ca. 320 BCE. Marble, 10′ 5″ High. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. Lysippos’s portrayal of Herakles after the hero obtained the golden apples of the Hesperides ironically shows the muscle-bound hero as so weary that he must lean on his club for support.

87 5-67Head of Alexander the Great, from Pella, Greece, Third Century BCE. Marble, 1′ High. Archaeological Museum, Pella. Lysippos was the official portrait sculptor of Alexander the Great. This third-century BCE sculpture has the sharp turn of the head and thick mane of hair of Lysippos’s statue of Alexander with a lance.

88 5-68Gnosis, Stag Hunt, from Pella, Greece, ca. 300 BCE. Pebble Mosaic, Figural Panel 10′ 2″ High. Archaeological Museum, Pella. The floor mosaics at the Macedonian capital of Pella are of the early type made with pebbles of various natural colors. This stag hunt by Gnosis bears the earliest known signature of a mosaicist.

89 5-69Hades Abducting Persephone, Detail of a Wall Painting in Tomb 1, Vergina, Greece, Mid-Fourth Century BCE. Fresco, Detail 3′ 3½″ High. The intense drama, three- quarter views, and shading in this representation of the lord of the Underworld kidnapping Demeter’s daughter are characteristics of mural painting at the time of Alexander

90 5-70Philoxenos of Eretria, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman Copy (Alexander Mosaic) from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy, Late Second or Early First Century BCE. Tessera Mosaic, 8′ 10″ × 16′ 9″. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. Battle of Issus reveals Philoxenos’s mastery of foreshortening, of modeling figures in color, and of depicting reflections and shadows, as well as his ability to capture the psychological intensity of warfare.

91 5-5c Architecture 5-71Polykleitos the Younger, Aerial View of the Theater (Looking Northeast), Epidauros, Greece, ca. 350 BCE The Greeks always situated theaters on hillsides to support the cavea of stone seats overlooking the circular orchestra. The Epidauros theater is the finest in Greece. It accommodated 12,000 spectators.

92 POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER, Theater, Epidauros, Greece, ca. 350 BCE and later.

93 5-72Theodoros of Phokaia, Tholos, Delphi, Greece, ca. 375 BCE The tholos at Delphi, although in ruins, is the best-preserved example of a round temple of the Classical period. It had Doric columns on the exterior and Corinthian columns inside.

94 Corinthian capitals A more ornate form than Doric or Ionic; it consists of a double row of acanthus leaves from which tendrils and flowers grow, wrapped around a bell-shaped echinus. Although this capital form is often cited as the distinguishing feature of the Corinthian order, no such order exists, in strict terms, but only this type of capital used in the Ionic order. (FIG. 5-73; see “The Corinthian Capital,” above), an invention of the second half of the fifth century BCE.


96 Doric orderCorinthian order Ionic order

97 Architectural Components Greek Orders: – Doric (oldest) – Ionic (most commonly used) – Corinthian Column & Entablature = Post & Lintel

98 Mausoleum – one of 7 wonders of the ancient world. 5-74Choragic Monument of Lysikrates, Athens, Greece, 334 BCE The first known use of Corinthian capitals on the exterior of a building is on the monument Lysikrates erected in Athens to commemorate the victory his chorus won in a theatrical contest.

99 Hellenistic Art ca. 323–30 BCE Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, ca. 175 BCE The Hellenistic age extends from the death of Alexander until the death of Cleopatra, when Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire. In art, both architects and sculptors broke most of the rules of Classical design. At Didyma, for example, the Temple of Apollo had no roof and contained a smaller temple within it. Hellenistic sculptors explored new subjects—Gauls with strange mustaches and necklaces, impoverished old women—and treated traditional subjects in new ways—athletes with battered bodies and faces, openly erotic goddesses. Artists delighted in depicting violent movement and unbridled emotion.

100 Hellenistic Period 5-6a Architecture The greater variety, complexity, and sophistication of Hellenistic culture called for an architecture on an imperial scale and of wide diversity, something far beyond the requirements of the Classical polis, even beyond that of Athens at the height of its power. Building activity shifted from the old centers on the Greek mainland to the opulent cities of the Hellenistic monarchs in the East.

101 5-75Paionios of Ephesos and Daphnis of Miletos, Aerial View (left, Looking East) and Plan (Right) of the Temple of Apollo, Didyma, Turkey, Begun 313 BCE This unusual Hellenistic temple was hypaethral (open to the sky) and featured a dipteral (double peripteral) colonnade framing an interior courtyard with a smaller shrine to Apollo.

102 Hippodamos of Miletos The so-called Hippodamian planA city plan devised by Hippodamos of Miletos ca. 466 bce, in which a strict grid was imposed on a site, regardless of the terrain, so that all streets would meet at right angles. also designated separate quarters for public, private, and religious functions. A “Hippodamian city” was logically as well as regularly planned. This desire to impose order on nature and to assign a proper place in the whole to each of the city’s constituent parts was very much in keeping with the philosophical tenets of the fifth century BCE. Hippodamos’s formula for the ideal city was another manifestation of the same outlook that produced Polykleitos’s Canon and the Parthenon.

103 5-76Restored View of Priene, Turkey, Fourth Century BCE and Later (John Burge). Despite its irregular terrain, Priene had a strict grid plan conforming to the principles of Hippodamos of Miletos, whom Aristotle singled out as the father of rational city planning.

104 5-77Stoa of Attalos II (Looking Southeast With the Acropolis in the Background), Agora, Athens, Greece, ca. 150 BCE The Stoa of Attalos II in the Athenian agora has been meticulously restored. Greek stoas were covered colonnades that housed shops and civic offices. They were also ideal vehicles for shaping urban spaces.

105 5-6b Pergamon Pergamon, the kingdom of Attalos II, was born in the early third century BCE after the breakup of Alexander’s empire. Founded by Philetairos (r BCE), the Pergamene kingdom embraced almost all of western and southern Asia Minor. Upon the death in 133 BCE of its last king, Attalos III (r BCE), Pergamon was bequeathed to Rome, which by then was the greatest power in the Mediterranean world. The Attalids enjoyed immense wealth and expended much of it on the embellishment of their capital city, especially its acropolis. Located there were the royal palace, an arsenal and barracks, a great library and theater, an agora, and the sacred precincts of Athena and Zeus.

106 5-78Reconstructed West Front of the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 175 BCE. Staatliche Museen Zu Berlin, Berlin. The gigantomachy frieze of Pergamon’s monumental Altar of Zeus is almost 400 feet long. The battle of gods and giants alluded to the victory of King Attalos I over the Gauls of Asia Minor.

107 5-79Athena Battling Alkyoneos, Detail of the Gigantomachy Frieze, Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 175 BCE. Marble, 7′ 6″ High. Staatliche Museen Zu Berlin, Berlin. The tumultuous battle scenes of the Pergamon altar have an emotional power unparalleled in earlier Greek art. Violent movement, swirling draperies, and vivid depictions of suffering fill the frieze.

108 5-80Epigonos(?), Gallic Chieftain Killing Himself and His Wife. Roman Copy of a Bronze Statue from Pergamon, Turkey, of ca. 230–220 BCE. Marble, 6′ 11″ High. Museo Nazionale Romano— Palazzo Altemps, Rome. The defeat of the Gauls was also the subject of Pergamene statuary groups. The centerpiece of one group was a Gallic chieftain committing suicide after taking his wife’s life. He preferred death to surrender.

109 5-81Epigonos(?), Dying Gaul. Roman Copy of a Bronze Statue from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230– 220 BCE. Marble, 3′ ½″ High. Musei Capitolini, Rome. A Pergamene sculptor depicted this defeated Gallic trumpeter and the other Gauls as barbarians with bushy hair, mustaches, and neck bands, but also as noble foes who fought to the death.

110 5-6c Sculpture 5-82Nike Alighting on a Warship (Nike of Samothrace), from Samothrace, Greece, ca. 190 BCE. Marble, Nike 8′ 1″ High. Musée Du Louvre, Paris. Victory lands on a ship’s prow to crown a naval victor. Her wings still beat, and the wind sweeps her drapery. The statue’s placement in a fountain of splashing water heightened the dramatic visual effect.

111 5-83Alexandros of Antioch-On-The- Meander, Aphrodite (Venus De Milo), from Melos, Greece, ca. 150’125 BCE. Marble, 6′ 7″ High. Musée Du Louvre, Paris. Displaying the eroticism of many Hellenistic statues, this Aphrodite is more overtly sexual than the Knidian Aphrodite (FIG. 5-62). The goddess’s slipping garment teases the spectator.

112 5-84Sleeping Satyr (Barberini Faun), from Rome, Italy, ca. 230– 200 BCE. Marble, 7′ 1″ High. Glyptothek, Munich. Here, a Hellenistic sculptor represented a restlessly sleeping, drunken satyr, a semihuman in a suspended state of consciousness—the antithesis of the Classical ideals of rationality and discipline.

113 5-85Sleeping Eros, from Rhodes, ca. 150–100 BCE. Bronze, 2′ 9½″ Long. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Rogers Fund, 1943). Eros, an adolescent in earlier Greek art, appears here as a pudgy winged infant sleeping on a rock. The Hellenistic sculptor skillfully represented the anatomy and personality of infants.

114 5-86Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy, ca. 100–50 BCE. Bronze, 4′ 2″ High. Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome. Even when Hellenistic artists treated traditional themes, they approached them in novel ways. This bronze statue depicts an older, defeated boxer with a broken nose and battered ears.

115 5-87Old Market Woman. Roman Copy(?) of a Marble Statue of ca. 150–100 BCE. Marble, 4′ 1⅝″ High. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Consistent with the realism of much Hellenistic art, many statues portray the elderly of the lowest rungs of society. Earlier Greek artists did not consider them suitable subjects for statuary.

116 5-88Polyeuktos, Demosthenes. Roman Copy of a Bronze Original of ca. 280 BCE. Marble, 6′ 7½″ High. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. One of the earliest Hellenistic portraits, frequently copied, was Polyeuktos’s representation of the great orator Demosthenes as a frail man who possessed great courage and moral conviction.

117 5-6d Hellenistic Art under Roman Patronage 5-89Athanadoros, Hagesandros, and Polydoros of Rhodes, Laocoön and His Sons, from Rome, Italy, Early First Century BCE. Marble, 7′ 10½″ High. Musei Vaticani, Rome. Hellenistic style lived on in Rome. Although stylistically akin to Pergamene sculpture, this statue of sea serpents attacking Laocoön and his two sons matches the account given only in the Aeneid.

118 5-90Athanadoros, Hagesandros, and Polydoros of Rhodes, Head of Odysseus, from the Villa of Tiberius, Sperlonga, Italy, Early First Century BCE. Marble, 2′ 1¼″ High. Museo Archeologico, Sperlonga. This emotionally charged depiction of Odysseus was part of a mythological statuary group the three Laocoön sculptors made for a grotto at the emperor Tiberius’s seaside villa at Sperlonga.

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