Presentation on theme: "The Wars of Religion Jared Peet. Warm Up – Class 9 – Wars of Religion Take out your answers to the following questions: – Why did Henry VIII want his."— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up – Class 9 – Wars of Religion Take out your answers to the following questions: – Why did Henry VIII want his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled? – Why did the pope reject Henry’s request for annulment? – What was the Act of Supremacy? When was it passed? Why was it significant? – What was the Supremacy Act of 1559?
Objectives Analyze the causes of the English Reformation by answering questions based on a textbook excerpt Analyze the role that the Protestant schism played in European conflicts
Reading Debrief Why did Henry VIII want his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled? – She had not produced a male heir to the throne Why did the pope reject Henry’s request for annulment? – Catherine and her nephew, HRE Charles V, opposed it What was the Act of Supremacy? When was it passed? Why was it significant? – Made all English citizens recognize Henry VIII as the head of the Church of England; 1534; Officially broke England from Rome What was the Supremacy Act of 1559? – Re-established separation of Church of England from Rome
Religious Conflict German Peasants Revolt France – Henry IV and the Edict of Nantes The Spanish Armada
German Peasants’ Revolt 1524-1525 – Thousands of German peasants storm castles and monasteries Nobles harshly suppressed the rebellion – kill over 100,000 Luther sided with nobles – said peasants “rob and rage and act like mad animals” – Wrote a pamphlet “Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants” Potential Cause: Luther’s questioning of existing social order, calls for a “priesthood of all believers” seemed to promote social equality
France: Wars of Religion Conflict over religion reached a fever pitch in France, which saw itself literally torn apart as Calvinists (Huguenots) and Catholics vied for power and influence between 1562 and 1598. The Calvinist minority consisted mostly of French nobility who opposed the monarchy, and thus received widespread support not for their religious beliefs, but their political leanings. Henry IV of France
Edict of Nantes (1598) The Edict of Nantes (1598) ended the Wars of Religion and proclaimed that while Catholicism was the official religion of France, Huguenots were allowed to practice Calvinism. Henry IV of France, once the Bourbon king of Navarre in southern France, converted to Catholicism to become king of all of France in 1589. It took him a few years to fix the religious conflict, however: he wasn’t crowned until 1594. Marguerite of Navarre Elizabeth I of England Oh! As a note…Henry’s grandmother was Marguerite of Navarre, one of the strongest proponents of Calvinism in France. Her grandson didn’t care as much about religion: he is reported to have said upon being told he must convert to Catholicism to take the throne: “Paris is well worth a Mass.” This annoyed his ally during the Wars of Religion, Elizabeth I of England, who supported the Huguenots against the ultra- Catholics.
Hinge Point Quiz 1.False 2.D 3.C 4.Wanted to divorce his first wife – Extra “points” for Catherine of Aragon, desiring a male heir
So what do we make of Henry IV? Was he a hypocrite? – Hypocrite: a person who claims to have certain beliefs but does not Was he a hero? – Hero: a person admired for their courage, abilities or noble qualities Let’s look at the Edict of Nantes to find out...
Instructions Guiding Question: Was Henry IV a hypocrite or a hero? Read and annotate the text. When you are finished, write a response to the guiding question using evidence from the text. – Hero: a person admired for their courage, abilities or noble qualities – Hypocrite: a person who claims to have certain beliefs but does not
Phillip II Spain during the sixteenth century became the undisputed European giant, a bulwark of Catholicism, and very dedicated to exploration in the Americas, which the Spaniards saw as the key to riches and power in the “Old World”. Its most famous king, Phillip II, inherited Charles V’s Spanish half of the Holy Roman Empire and its American holdings, and later acquired Portugal and its riches in the East. Although quiet and shy personally, Phillip’s rule was highlighted by ostentatious wealth. He ruled from the Escorial, one of the largest palaces ever built in Europe. Phillip, by the way, Mary I of England’s husband. He tried to marry Elizabeth too.
The Spanish Netherlands Good evidence of the part religion played in politics even in the “Catholic King’s” empire can be seen in the Netherlands, which erupted into revolt and a bid for independence in 1581 under the leadership of William the Silent of Orange. The conflict did not end until 1609. The fight again was started by the nobility who had converted to Calvinism…and opposed paying taxes to Phillip.
The Spanish Armada (1588) Spain’s resources were vast but widespread. Spain was the first modern empire that stretched across oceans, from Mexico City to India. In order to travel these holdings and rule the seas, they created the Armada, considered to be the most powerful navy in the world. In an attempt to stop Protestantism from taking hold in England, Phillip sent the Armada to decimate Elizabeth I’s small English navy. The Armada, due to bad weather and brilliant tactics on the part of Sir Francis Drake, was decimated instead. Very flashy, very big…and very defeated. The Spaniards were high on their stunning victory over the Ottomans in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571…but their plans for England were not to be.
England, as a result… …remained a Protestant country under one of its most famous monarchs, Elizabeth I. The daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth was nearly executed by her half-sister, Mary I (Bloody Mary) a Catholic who started wars of religion on English soil. Elizabeth learned religious moderation as a result of her experiences, and instead focused on making England a maritime power. She would reign for seventy years, but never marry, making her the last of the Tudor monarchs.
3-2-1 Exit Ticket List THREE changes made during the Counter- Reformation Explain how religious conflict caused TWO conflicts in Europe during the 1500s Write ONE question you still have about this unit