Presentation on theme: "WORLD HISTORY VOCABULARY UNIT 5 – WORLD WAR I. THE PARTICIPANTS Triple AllianceAlliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry Triple EntenteAn alliance."— Presentation transcript:
THE PARTICIPANTS Triple AllianceAlliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry Triple EntenteAn alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI. AlexandraLast Tsarist of Russia, had a son who was a hemophiliac, and was put under the influence of Rasputin, where he exploited her. Ended up causing the collapse of the Tsars Grigori Rasputina Siberian preacher who became friends of the Tsars, but hated by the public, twisted and cheated and exploited Alexandra. Archduke Francis Ferdinandheir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI General Alfred von Schlieffenhad helped draw up the plan for the German military; known as the Schlieffen Plan, it called for a two- front war with France and Russia since the two had formed a military alliance in 1894
THE PLAYERS (people) OF WWI: Gavrilo PrincipMember of a terrorist organization called The Black Hand. Helped to end the optimistic Progressive era in America. Murdered Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. Wanted to set Bosnia free from Austria-Hungary Emperor William IIGerman emperor who gave Austria-Hungary a "blank check," promising Germany's full support if war broke out between Russia and Austria- Hungary Czar Nicholas IIRussian Czar during WWI; unpopular with Russian people; overthrown in March 1917; executed by Bolsheviks after November during Russian Revolution Lawrence of ArabiaBritish officer who helped lead Arab revolt in 1917 that allowed British army to sweep in and break up Ottoman Empire Erich Von LudendorffGuided German military operations, decided to make one final military break- gamble- grand offensive in the west to break the military stalemate. His gamble failed.
MORE PLAYERS (people) of WWI: Admiral HoltzendorfGerman admiral who assured Emperor William II that the Americans would not intervene in the war and, if they did, they would not land on the continent. He and the others were wrong when the U.S. joined the war in April, 1917. Woodrow Wilson28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
EVEN MORE PLAYERS (people) OF WWI : Alexander KerenskyHeaded the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty. V.I.LeninLed the communist revolution, was the leader of the Bolsheviks, ruled Russia, Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself. Leon TrotskyRussian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army David Lloyd GeorgeHe was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points. Georges ClemenceauFrench statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929) Friedrich Ebertafter William II left, he rules the Social Democracy and announces a democratic republic in Germany
THE BATTLES OF WWI: MarneBattle near Paris that ended Germany's hope of swift victory VerdunA battle in WWI. Is considered some of the bloodiest fighting in WWI and the German offense was stopped; offensive battle on the western front initiated by Germany in which they hoped to crush France and taken them out of the war, however France was in a very good defensive position and French held it for 10 months. Nearly a million killed. French drew reserve troops from the Somme to help defend. No territory was gained; Battle in WWI that ended in massive casualties and had little direct result
MORE BATTLES: TannenburgIn 1914 during World War I a German army under the command of Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg won an important victory over two Russian armies in the Second Battle of Tannenberg who had invaded East Prussia. GallipoliA poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.
THE THEATRES (PLACES) OF BATTLE: SerbiaSmall European nation in which an Austro-Hungarian heir was killed, leading to the outbreak of WWI Bosniaan Austrian province Masurian LakesAt the beginning of the war, the Russian army moved into eastern Germany but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Tannenberg on August 30 and the Battle of Masurian Lakes on September 15. As a result of these defeats, the Russians were no longer a threat to German territory.
MORE THEATRES (places) OF WWI: Petrogradcapital city of Russia during World War I; formerly (and today) known as St. Petersburg. Siberiaa region of central and eastern Russia, stretching from the Ural mountains to the pacific ocean, known for its mineral resources and for being a place of political exile. Uralsthe czar, his wife, and five children were moved to a mining town in this after the czar abdicated
& STILL MORE PLACES OF WWI: KielGerman town where sailors mutinied on November 3, 1918 AlsaceFrench province that used to belong to Germany, where people speak both French & German Lorraineregion of France taken by the Germans in 1871; returned to France after World War I Polanda republic in central Europe
MORE TERMINOLOGY OF WWI: total warA war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields. Planned Economiesan economic system directed by government agencies Sovietsa Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers. BolsheviksLed by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian government during WWI War Communismin World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
OTHER DETAILS Conscriptioncompulsory military service Propagandaideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause Trench WarfareFighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI. War of AttritionTrench warfare between Germany and France. Called War of Attrition(wearing down) because the goal was to break down the enemy. There was no winner after 3 years of fighting. MandatesThe Treaty of Versailles established British or French control over territories formerly held by Germany and the Ottoman Empire; especially important in regard to Arab areas after the war. Mobilizationact of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops“