2 Section 1: The Road to WWI European nations continued to compete for control of colonies and trade.Those powers divided into 2 alliances:Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and ItalyTriple Entente – France, Great Britain, and Russia
3 Increased tensions: Socialist labor movements grew more powerful Growth of mass armies – doubled in size between 1880 and 1914Militarism, the aggressive preparation for war, grew also.
4 Outbreak of WarSerbia wanted to create an independent state in the Balkans. They were supported by Russia.June 28, 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip.Austrian rulers wanted to attack Serbia because of the assassination.Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914.
5 As a result of the declaration of war on Serbia, Czar Nicholas II of Russia mobilizes the Russian army against Austria-Hungary. This was considered an act of war by Germany.Germany declared war on Russia on August 1.Germany also declared war on France on August 3 and planned to pass through Belgian territory, which was neutral.As a result, Great Britain declared war on Germany.**end of notes**
6 Section 2: The WarGovernments used propaganda to influence public opinion for or against the war.As a result, most people believed that their nation’s cause was justified. They also believed that the war would be over in just a few weeks.
8 Western FrontGermany had hopes of sweeping around Paris to capture it.They were halted outside of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne in September.War quickly turned into a stalemate, as neither the French or Germans could dislodge the other from the trenches they had dug for shelter.Trench warfare kept both sides in virtually the same positions for four years.
9 Trench WarfareTroops lived in holes in the ground, separated from each other by a strip of land known as “no-man’s land.”
11 Eastern FrontRussia moved into eastern Germany but was defeated at the Battle of Tannenberg in August and at the Battle of Masurian Lakes in September.As a result, the Russians were no longer a threat to German territory.
12 Serbia was eliminated from the war by Germany and Austria-Hungary. Italy’s betrayalItaly attacked Austria in May of 1915.Italy joined Great Britain, France, and Russia. They were now called the Allied Powers or Allies.Russia casualties were tremendous: 2.5 million had been killed, captured, or wounded. The Russians has almost been knocked out of the war.Serbia was eliminated from the war by Germany and Austria-Hungary.**end of notes**
13 Entry of the United States The U.S. tried to remain neutral.However, the naval war between Germany and Great Britain would cause the U.S. to become involved.Germans used unrestricted submarine warfare, which included the sinking of passenger ships.They sank the British ship Lusitania on May 7, 1915.Over 100 Americans died on that ship.
14 War and Women WWI created new roles for women. As men left for war, women took over their jobs.Some of these jobs included truck drivers, chimney sweeps, and factory workers in heavy industry.These jobs and benefits would not last. After returning home from the war, the men would go back to their old jobs.Biggest gain for women was the right to vote.Germany, Austria and the United States**end of notes**
15 Section 3: The Russian Revolution Russia was not prepared for the total war of WWI.Czar Nicholas II was leading the armed forces.Industry could not produce the necessary weapons.Russian army suffered severe losses.2 million soldiers killed4 to 6 million wounded or captured
16 While Nicholas was on the battlefront, his wife, Alexandria, made all of the important decisions. She often consulted Grigori Rasputin, a Siberian peasant who claimed to be a holy man, before making any decisions.
17 The Russian people grew more and more upset with the czarist regime. They assassinated Rasputin.Led a series of strikes starting in March of 1917, in the capital city of Petrograd.All of the factories shut down.Government urged the czar to step down.He abdicated on March 15, 1917.**end of notes**
18 Bolsheviks A soviet group led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin Dedicated to violent revolutionOverthrew the provisional government set up after the czar abdicatedThey promised to end the war, redistribute the land to the peasants, transform the factories, and gain power“Peace, Land, Bread”“Worker Control of Production”“All Power to the Soviets”
19 Peace did not come because of civil war After seizing control of the government, the Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Communists.Peace did not come because of civil warThe Reds (Communists) had to fight the Whites (anti-Communists) for power.After defeating the White forces, the soviets murdered the czar and his family.
20 The Reds won because: The Red Army was well-disciplined Disunity between the Whites - some wanted to reinstate the czarist rule while others wanted a democratic governmentRed Terror – period when secret police abolished anyone that opposed the soviets**end of notes**
21 Section 4: End of the WarThe entrance of the U.S. would prove to be crucial in winning the war.German advances towards Paris were defeated at the Second Battle of the Marne in July 1918.More than 1 million troops poured into FranceNew German government called for armistice in November of 1918
22 Peace Settlement Paris Peace Conference Woodrow Wilson outlined his Fourteen Points settlementGreat Britain and France wanted to make Germany pay for the warGermany was not invited to the peace conference and Russian could not attend because of their civil war.League of Nations created – world organization created to prevent future wars
23 Treaty of Versailles of 1919 Ordered Germany to pay reparations for all the damageGermany had to reduce its army, cut back its navy, and eliminate its air force**end of notes**
24 The War’s LegacyPower of governments over the lives of their citizens increasedFreedom of the press and speech were limited in the name of national securityRevolutions broke up old empires and created new states**end of notes**