2The Renaissance Rediscovering Ancient Greece and Rome _________________________________________“rebirth”Refers to the renewal of curiosity and creativity.People’s valuesBeliefsBehavior
3The Renaissance Rediscovering Ancient Greece and Rome Renewal of Human Spirit“Renaissance person”Well rounded interests:_______________________________________________________AthleticsLiteratureMusicInventorScienceLanguages, etc.The Church is still rich and powerful.
4It All Began in Italy: A Flourish of Genius ______________________ was responsible for financing many intellectual and artistic endeavors.A few Italian geniuses:___________________________________The Roman Catholic ChurchBoccaccio/Author of The DecameronDaVinci/The perfect “Renaissance Man”Galileo/ScientistMichelangelo/ArtistColumbus/An explorer
5Humanism: Questions About the Good Life _________ was an artistic/intellectual movement which:Used the classics combined with traditional Christian thought – _________________________________________ ________.Taught people how to live and rule by answering the question “how do we achieve happiness”; which is through ____________Humanismtried to harmonize Bible with classics i.e. Greek and Latin.a life of virtue.
6Two Friends – Two Humanists Two prominent humanists are:____________________________Dutch Monk---loved to travel---wrote in LatinBelonged to all of Europe---because of travelsOn a trip to EnglandTaught Greek at CambridgeMet and became friends with a young lawyer…___________________________________________________________________Desiderius Erasmus (1466?-1536)Sir Thomas More (1477?-1535)He wrote poems, pamphletsHowever, Utopia had the greatest impact.
7The New Technology: A Flood of Print Printing pressThe _____________ was created in about 1455 by Johann Gutenberg, and transformed the way information was exchanged.The first book printed…______________________Helped spread knowledgeMade books more available to more people(REVOLUTIONIZED THE WORLD)______________Created the English Printing Press (set up) in 1476The Latin BibleWilliam Caxton
8Breaking with the Church The Reformation:Breaking with the ChurchA common feature common to all Reformers was ___________________________________________ _________In Germany _________________________________________________________________________________This action against the Church is a historic event.The rejection of authority of the Pope and the Italian churchman., Martin Luther – 1517 – pined his thesis statements to the door of the church, which stated that the New Christianity states:People should share have personal understanding of the Bible rather than depend on the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
9The Reformation: Breaking with the Church continued … There were three circumstances that led to England’s break with the Church.____________________________Financial burdens.Patriotism.National Identity.
10King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir King Henry VIII wanted to end his marriage with Catherine of Aragon because:_________________________King Henry VIII wanted to break with the Catholic Church ____________________________ ___________________________________________King Henry VIII executed Sir Thomas More ___________________________________________She was unable to give King Henry a son.He wanted to marry Ann Boleyn.because he wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragaon.because More did not recognize King Henry VIII as head of the church. More believed that church and state should be separate.
11King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir continued… There were five groups dissatisfied with the Church of England:___________________________________________These groups were dissatisfied with the Church of England because:____________________________________________ ____________________________________________.Puritans – remember this one.PresbyteriansBaptistsNon conformistDissidentsThese groups felt that it was a copy of the Catholic Church.
12King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir continued… The five things these dissatisfied groups wanted to get rid of were:_______________________________________________BishopsPrayer booksPriest’s vestmentsChurch bellsStain glass windows
13King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir… King Henry VIII Wives were:_____________________________________________________________________________________________Katherine of Aragon (annulled)Ann Boleyn (beheaded)Jane Seymour (died)Anne of Cleves (divorced)Catherine Howard (beheaded)Catherine Parr (survived)
14King Henry VIII : Renaissance Man and Executioner ________________ started the Royal Navy, however:_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________.King Henry’s fatherUnder King Henry VIII it became a powerful force. Put stop to foreign invasions, allowed England to spread power, language, literature all over world. (beginnings of England as World Power)
15King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir King Henry VIII is considered a Renaissance Man because:___________________________________wrote poetry, music, literaturein youth very athletic, handsomeladies man, good dancer, etc.
16Henry VIII: Renaissance Man and Executioner List Henry VIIIs wives, their fates and children (if any) he had with each.READY, SET, GO …………….
18Katherine of Aragon continued … Very Catholic!They were very happy for awhile.Gave birth to daughter: Mary.Doesn’t give him the son he wants, eyes move elsewhere to Anne Boleyn.Annulment (divorce) – sends her back to Spain.
20Anne Boleyn continued … Henry created the Church of English in 1531 for her.Henry became attracted to her about 1525 – she was one of Katherine of Aragon’s ladies in waiting.Henry sent Cardinal Wolsey to the Pope to plead his case for a divorce. Wolsey was later dismissed as Lord Chancellor.Henry secretly married Anne – 1533.
21Anne Boleyn continued … Parliament declared the marriage to Katherine invalidCareful…..if marriage is invalid…What happens to Mary????She is considered illegitimate.Anne gives birth to Elizabeth – Sept. 1533
23Jane Seymour Quiet, mousey and frail. One of Anne Boleyn’s ladies in waitingSeemed to always be frightened.VERY different from Katherine and Anne.Married Henry day after Boleyn’s execution.Already carrying Henry’s only legitimate son.Edward ( )Childhood fever causes his death.Was Henry’s favorite…she gave him a son.
25Anne of Cleves Wife 4 1540---Henry marries her, sight unseen. Alliance with Germany.Had only seen portraits of Anne (in person, didn’t like what he saw– called her a “Flander’s mare”.)She saw what was coming (SMART).Testified-the marriage was never consummated.Probably most fortunate of all Henry’s wives.Received many gifts from Henry (SET for LIFE).
27Catherine Howard Born between 1520 and 1525…no record Cousin of Anne Boleyn (poor side of family)Wild child -- not supervised like most young childrenAffair with music teacherAffair with estate managerOne of Anne of Cleve’s ladies in waiting
28Catherine Howard continued … Rumors she was carrying Henry’s son before he annulled marriage to Anne of ClevesProbably started by her familyIt worked…they were married a few weeks later (16 days after being freed from Anne)Henry showered her with jewels and clothesHenry called her “his rose without a thorn”Catherine vowed all his wishes would be metBUT….
29Catherine Howard continued … She found her marriage bed…unappealingBy this time, Henry was…Nearly 50 (she was approximately 19)Weighed about 300 lbs.SickHad a leg ulcerEarly in she had a romance with Thomas Culpepper.
31Catherine Parr continued … Widowed twiceIn a relationship with Thomas Seymour (Jane’s brother, actually married him after death of Henry)She caught Henry’s eye-he proposedMarried in July 1543She was friends with his childrenEven brought Henry and his daughters togetherThrough and Act of Parliament-they were put back in the line of succession
33The Boy King and Bloody Mary continued … King Henry VIII only legitimate male heir was __________________.Edward VI
34Mary I (Tudor) (daughter of Katherine of Aragon)
35Mary I (Mary Tudor) continued … Determined to have a Catholic heir.Her uncle was the King of SpainMarried the King of Spain’s son…Phillip 1st cousin.Strong-willed, determined to avenge the wrongs done to her mother (Katherine of Aragon).Converted England back to Roman Catholic, burned 300 Protestants at the stake, known as BLOODY MARY.Overthrown by subjects but died before being ousted.
36Elizabeth I: The Virgin Queen (daughter of Anne Boleyn)
37Elizabeth I (Elizabeth Tudor) continued … Considered one of the most brilliant & successful monarchs in historyChurch important to her. Reestablished Church of England, excommunicated from Roman Catholic Church.Never married (knew strength in independence and ability to play one suitor against another).Taxes (Catholic families being taxed more – smiling – raiders in Catholic church really her own men, kept her 10% from Church - $$$ to her military (Navy).
38Elizabeth I: The Virgin Queen continued … Survived many plots against her, many from cousin, Mary Queen of Scots; endured 20 years and then had Mary beheaded.
39The Spanish Armada Sinks: A Turning Point in History Because Queen Elizabeth had Mary Queen of Scots beheaded, King Phillip of Spain (widower of Mary Tudor) used the beheading of Mary Stuart as excuse to invade England.Spanish Armada (130 ships; 30,000 men) – smaller, faster, more maneuverable English ships DEFEATED Armada. Half Spanish fleet destroyed by English and weather (5,000 men drowned). England lost 100 men and NO ships!Defeat of Spanish Armada = turning point in history -- Established England as WORLD POWER.
40A Flood of LiteratureQueen Elizabeth became a source of INSPIRATION for the English people.She established a religious & national identity.She established a sense of stability for the Country and for the Church.English writers started writing as never before.William ShakespeareChristopher MarlowEdmund Spencer…. All wrote about her.Composer and Musician Robert Johnson
41Decline of the Renaissance: A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman James I (James Stuart – James VI of Scotland) replaced Queen Elizabeth in 1603.
42Decline of the Renaissance: A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman James I was the son of Mary Queen of Scots’.The group which disliked King James I the most was the puritanical merchants. (Puritans)King James lacked Elizabeth’s ability to resolve or postpone conflicts, especially religious and economic issues. Difficult reign.James I tried to endear himself to his subjects by:__________________________________________._____________________________________________________________________________________Writing books in favor of divine right of monarchyPatronizing Shakespeare’s “King’s Men” and Jonson.A new translation of Bible: King James Version.Began an anti-tobacco policy.
43Decline of the Renaissance: A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman Three reasons why James Is subjects did not like him, where:________________________________________________________________________He was a spendthrift.He was considered “thick-tongued” and “google eyed”.He was a foreigner (Scotland not England.)
44The Glass of Fashion Green = _______ Pansy = _______ Snake = _______ Black and White = ___________________White and Tawny = __________________LoveSadnessFlatteryChastity and purityPatience in adversity
45The Glass of Fashion continued… When a person was referred to as having a “peascod” or “goose belly” it meant ____________________.A man with a “peascod” or “goose belly” was ______________________.one had a fat belly.considered wealthy.
46Jewish Life in EnglandThe most famous Jewish character in Renaissance literature was ______________.The two most unflattering characteristics of this famous Jewish character were:__________________________________ banished the Jews from England in and__________________ allowed the Jews to return in the 17th century?ShylockHe had no mercy.He was a moneylender.King Edward IOliver Cromwell
47Jewish Life in England continued … Three Examples of persecution suffered by the Jews were:__________________Could not own land.Were segregated – Ghettos.Were charged extra taxes.
49Quiz - The Renaissance1. Why are historical periods so inexact, and why are they generally unknown as periods or eras to the people who live during them? a. They are too complex to be understood by most people. b. c. They come and go with such suddenness that people usually cannot distinguish what “historical period” they live in. d. They are completely artificial constructs and have no basis in documented reality.They are created later by historians to describe general trends rather than precise beginnings and ends.
50Quiz - The Renaissance continued 2. Which of the following statements best characterizes the intellectual environment of the Renaissance? a. Most people could not read, in part because they could not gain access to books. b. Most Europeans were highly sensitive to the achievements of people from other cultures, particularly people of the Orient. c. d. Through their superior knowledge, scholars established power over the majority of the people.As people became interested in the writings of ancient Greece and Rome, they became more inquisitive and creative.
51Quiz - The Renaissance continued 3. Which of the following statements best describes the intellectual movement known as humanism? a. b. Humanism taught that people should use knowledge to accumulate wealth and achieve fame. c. Humanism accepted the teachings of the classics but rejected those of the Bible. d. Humanism could not tolerate contradictory texts and thus could not refer to many ancient books.Humanism, which combined the wisdom of the classics with that of the Bible, emphasized the ideals of wisdom and virtue.
52Quiz - The Renaissance continued 4. Why did the invention of printing with movable type have a significant impact? a. Printed documents were more beautiful than handwritten ones. b. c. Books became more expensive and therefore were more valued. d. The ability to print with movable type gave Germany an edge over other countries.The wide availability of reading material allowed ideas to spread quickly.
53Quiz - The Renaissance continued 5. How did the monk Martin Luther contribute to the beginning of the Reformation? a. He renewed people’s devotion to studying and following the words of the pope. b. He taught that other religions were as valid as Christianity. c. d. He ridiculed ancient habits and traditions, such as superciliousness.He developed a personal form of Christianity which was not based on interpretation.
54Quiz - The Renaissance continued 6. Why were so many people in England dissatisfied with the Church of England in the mid-1500s? a b. They felt that the pope was too remote, and they wanted him to have more of a presence in England. c. They were beginning to reject the idea of leading a religious life. d. They disagreed with the notion that religion was a private matter between an individual and God.They felt that the Church was insufficiently reformed and was merely a copy of Catholicism.
55Quiz - The Renaissance continued 7. In what way could King Henry VIII of England be considered a “Renaissance man”? a. He went to extremes to ensure that he had a male heir. b. He ended foreign invasions of England by creating the Royal Navy. c. He was arrogant and ruthless, and he was unfaithful to his wives. d.He was literary, musical, athletic, and scholarly.
56Quiz - The Renaissance continued 8. England’s independence from the Catholic countries of the Mediterranean was ensured by a. Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press. b. c. the readmission of Jews to England in d. Queen Elizabeth I’s execution of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots.the English Royal Navy’s defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588.
57Quiz - The Renaissance continued 9. The end of the English Renaissance was characterized by a. the increased growth of moral and religious values. b. the pillaging of resources from the Americas. c. the rise of humanism as a way of thought and study. d.increasing interest in secular, rather than religious, values.
58Quiz - The Renaissance continued 10. The Catholic Church was very powerful in fourteenth-century Italy—in a way that most people would find unacceptable today. Why would most modern people in the United States object to such power? a. The Church would help artists whose work was not always in the public interest. b. The Church would discourage classical learning and thus suppress scholarship. c. d. The Church’s values would be out of date and incompatible with modern lifestyles.The Church’s political power would interfere with United States citizens’ constitutional right to freedom of religion.