Presentation on theme: "The Renaissance Period (England 1485-1660). The Renaissance Rediscovering Ancient Greece and Rome Renaissance / _________________________________________."— Presentation transcript:
The Renaissance Rediscovering Ancient Greece and Rome Renaissance / _________________________________________ Refers to the renewal of curiosity and creativity. People’s values Beliefs Behavior “rebirth”
The Renaissance Rediscovering Ancient Greece and Rome Renewal of Human Spirit “Renaissance person” Well rounded interests: ___________ __________ ___________ __________________________________ Athletics Literature Music Inventor Science Languages, etc. The Church is still rich and powerful.
It All Began in Italy: A Flourish of Genius ______________________ was responsible for financing many intellectual and artistic endeavors. A few Italian geniuses: ___________________________________ The Roman Catholic Church Boccaccio/Author of The Decameron DaVinci/The perfect “Renaissance Man” Galileo/Scientist Michelangelo/Artist Columbus/An explorer
Humanism: Questions About the Good Life _________ was an artistic/intellectual movement which: Used the classics combined with traditional Christian thought – _________________________________________ ________. Taught people how to live and rule by answering the question “how do we achieve happiness”; which is through ____________ tried to harmonize Bible with classics i.e. Greek and Latin. a life of virtue. Humanism
Two Friends – Two Humanists Two prominent humanists are: ____________________________ Dutch Monk---loved to travel---wrote in Latin Belonged to all of Europe---because of travels On a trip to England Taught Greek at Cambridge Met and became friends with a young lawyer… _________________________________ __________________________________ He wrote poems, pamphlets However, Utopia had the greatest impact. Desiderius Erasmus (1466?-1536) Sir Thomas More (1477?-1535)
The New Technology: A Flood of Print The _____________ was created in about 1455 by Johann Gutenberg, and transformed the way information was exchanged. The first book printed… ______________________ Helped spread knowledge Made books more available to more people (REVOLUTIONIZED THE WORLD) ______________ Created the English Printing Press (set up) in 1476 Printing press The Latin Bible William Caxton
A common feature common to all Reformers was ___________________________________________ _________ In Germany __________________________________ _______________________________________________ This action against the Church is a historic event. The Reformation: Breaking with the Church People should share have personal understanding of the Bible rather than depend on the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church., Martin Luther – 1517 – pined his thesis statements to the door of the church, which stated that the New Christianity states: The rejection of authority of the Pope and the Italian churchman.
The Reformation: Breaking with the Church continued … There were three circumstances that led to England’s break with the Church. ____________________________ Financial burdens. Patriotism. National Identity.
King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir King Henry VIII wanted to end his marriage with Catherine of Aragon because: _________________________ King Henry VIII wanted to break with the Catholic Church ____________________________ ___________________________________________ King Henry VIII executed Sir Thomas More ___________________________________________ He wanted to marry Ann Boleyn. She was unable to give King Henry a son. because he wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragaon. because More did not recognize King Henry VIII as head of the church. More believed that church and state should be separate.
King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir continued… There were five groups dissatisfied with the Church of England: ___________________________________________ These groups were dissatisfied with the Church of England because: ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________. Puritans – remember this one. Presbyterians Baptists Non conformist Dissidents These groups felt that it was a copy of the Catholic Church.
King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir continued… The five things these dissatisfied groups wanted to get rid of were: _______________________________________________ Bishops Prayer books Priest’s vestments Church bells Stain glass windows
King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir… King Henry VIII Wives were: ______________________________ _______________________________ ________________________________ _______________________________ Katherine of Aragon (annulled) Ann Boleyn (beheaded) Anne of Cleves (divorced) Catherine Howard (beheaded) Catherine Parr (survived) Jane Seymour (died)
King Henry VIII : Renaissance Man and Executioner ________________ started the Royal Navy, however: _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________. Under King Henry VIII it became a powerful force. Put stop to foreign invasions, allowed England to spread power, language, literature all over world. (beginnings of England as World Power) King Henry’s father
King Henry VIII Versus Pope: All for an Heir King Henry VIII is considered a Renaissance Man because: ___________________________________ wrote poetry, music, literature in youth very athletic, handsome ladies man, good dancer, etc.
Henry VIII: Renaissance Man and Executioner List Henry VIIIs wives, their fates and children (if any) he had with each. READY, SET, GO …………….
Katherine of Aragon continued … Very Catholic! They were very happy for awhile. Gave birth to daughter: Mary. Doesn’t give him the son he wants, eyes move elsewhere to Anne Boleyn. Annulment (divorce) – sends her back to Spain.
Anne Boleyn continued … Henry created the Church of English in 1531 for her. Henry became attracted to her about 1525 – she was one of Katherine of Aragon’s ladies in waiting. Henry sent Cardinal Wolsey to the Pope to plead his case for a divorce. Wolsey was later dismissed as Lord Chancellor. Henry secretly married Anne – 1533.
Anne Boleyn continued … Parliament declared the marriage to Katherine invalid Careful…..if marriage is invalid… What happens to Mary???? She is considered illegitimate. Anne gives birth to Elizabeth – Sept. 1533
Jane Seymour Quiet, mousey and frail. One of Anne Boleyn’s ladies in waiting Seemed to always be frightened. VERY different from Katherine and Anne. Married Henry day after Boleyn’s execution. Already carrying Henry’s only legitimate son. Edward (1547-1553) Childhood fever causes his death. Was Henry’s favorite…she gave him a son.
1540---Henry marries her, sight unseen. Alliance with Germany. Had only seen portraits of Anne (in person, didn’t like what he saw– called her a “Flander’s mare”.) She saw what was coming (SMART). Testified-the marriage was never consummated. Probably most fortunate of all Henry’s wives. Received many gifts from Henry (SET for LIFE).
Catherine Howard Born between 1520 and 1525…no record Cousin of Anne Boleyn (poor side of family) Wild child -- not supervised like most young children Affair with music teacher Affair with estate manager One of Anne of Cleve’s ladies in waiting
Catherine Howard continued … Rumors she was carrying Henry’s son before he annulled marriage to Anne of Cleves Probably started by her family It worked…they were married a few weeks later (16 days after being freed from Anne) Henry showered her with jewels and clothes Henry called her “his rose without a thorn” Catherine vowed all his wishes would be met BUT….
Catherine Howard continued … She found her marriage bed…unappealing By this time, Henry was… Nearly 50 (she was approximately 19) Weighed about 300 lbs. Sick Had a leg ulcer Early in 1541..she had a romance with Thomas Culpepper.
Catherine Parr continued … 1512-1548 Widowed twice In a relationship with Thomas Seymour (Jane’s brother, actually married him after death of Henry) She caught Henry’s eye-he proposed Married in July 1543 She was friends with his children Even brought Henry and his daughters together Through and Act of Parliament-they were put back in the line of succession
The Boy King and Bloody Mary continued … King Henry VIII only legitimate male heir was __________________. Edward VI
Mary I (Tudor) (daughter of Katherine of Aragon)
Mary I (Mary Tudor) continued … Determined to have a Catholic heir. Her uncle was the King of Spain Married the King of Spain’s son…Phillip 1 st cousin. Strong-willed, determined to avenge the wrongs done to her mother (Katherine of Aragon). Converted England back to Roman Catholic, burned 300 Protestants at the stake, known as BLOODY MARY. Overthrown by subjects but died before being ousted.
Elizabeth I: The Virgin Queen (daughter of Anne Boleyn)
Elizabeth I (Elizabeth Tudor) continued … Considered one of the most brilliant & successful monarchs in history Church important to her. Reestablished Church of England, excommunicated from Roman Catholic Church. Never married (knew strength in independence and ability to play one suitor against another). Taxes (Catholic families being taxed more – smiling – raiders in Catholic church really her own men, kept her 10% from Church - $$$ to her military (Navy).
Elizabeth I: The Virgin Queen continued … Survived many plots against her, many from cousin, Mary Queen of Scots; endured 20 years and then had Mary beheaded.
The Spanish Armada Sinks: A Turning Point in History Because Queen Elizabeth had Mary Queen of Scots beheaded, King Phillip of Spain (widower of Mary Tudor) used the beheading of Mary Stuart as excuse to invade England. Spanish Armada (130 ships; 30,000 men) – smaller, faster, more maneuverable English ships DEFEATED Armada. Half Spanish fleet destroyed by English and weather (5,000 men drowned). England lost 100 men and NO ships! Defeat of Spanish Armada = turning point in history -- Established England as WORLD POWER.
A Flood of Literature Queen Elizabeth became a source of INSPIRATION for the English people. She established a religious & national identity. She established a sense of stability for the Country and for the Church. English writers started writing as never before. William Shakespeare Christopher Marlow Edmund Spencer…. All wrote about her. Composer and Musician Robert Johnson
Decline of the Renaissance: A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman James I (James Stuart – James VI of Scotland) replaced Queen Elizabeth in 1603.
Decline of the Renaissance: A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman James I was the son of Mary Queen of Scots’. The group which disliked King James I the most was the puritanical merchants. (Puritans) King James lacked Elizabeth’s ability to resolve or postpone conflicts, especially religious and economic issues. Difficult reign. James I tried to endear himself to his subjects by: __________________________________________. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Writing books in favor of divine right of monarchy Patronizing Shakespeare’s “King’s Men” and Jonson. A new translation of Bible: King James Version. Began an anti-tobacco policy.
Decline of the Renaissance: A Dull Man Succeeds a Witty Woman Three reasons why James Is subjects did not like him, where: ___________________________ _____________________________________________ He was a spendthrift. He was considered “thick-tongued” and “google eyed”. He was a foreigner (Scotland not England.)
The Glass of Fashion Green = _______ Pansy = _______ Snake = _______ Black and White = ___________________ White and Tawny = __________________ Love Sadness Flattery Chastity and purity Patience in adversity
The Glass of Fashion continued… When a person was referred to as having a “peascod” or “goose belly” it meant ____________________. A man with a “peascod” or “goose belly” was ______________________. one had a fat belly. considered wealthy.
Jewish Life in England The most famous Jewish character in Renaissance literature was ______________. The two most unflattering characteristics of this famous Jewish character were: ______________________ ____________ banished the Jews from England in 1290 and __________________ allowed the Jews to return in the 17 th century? He had no mercy. He was a moneylender. Shylock King Edward I Oliver Cromwell
Jewish Life in England continued … Three Examples of persecution suffered by the Jews were: __________________ Were segregated – Ghettos. Were charged extra taxes. Could not own land.
Quiz - The Renaissance 1. Why are historical periods so inexact, and why are they generally unknown as periods or eras to the people who live during them? a. They are too complex to be understood by most people. b. c. They come and go with such suddenness that people usually cannot distinguish what “historical period” they live in. d. They are completely artificial constructs and have no basis in documented reality. They are created later by historians to describe general trends rather than precise beginnings and ends.
Quiz - The Renaissance continued 2. Which of the following statements best characterizes the intellectual environment of the Renaissance? a. Most people could not read, in part because they could not gain access to books. b. Most Europeans were highly sensitive to the achievements of people from other cultures, particularly people of the Orient. c. d. Through their superior knowledge, scholars established power over the majority of the people. As people became interested in the writings of ancient Greece and Rome, they became more inquisitive and creative.
Quiz - The Renaissance continued 3. Which of the following statements best describes the intellectual movement known as humanism? a. b. Humanism taught that people should use knowledge to accumulate wealth and achieve fame. c. Humanism accepted the teachings of the classics but rejected those of the Bible. d. Humanism could not tolerate contradictory texts and thus could not refer to many ancient books. Humanism, which combined the wisdom of the classics with that of the Bible, emphasized the ideals of wisdom and virtue.
Quiz - The Renaissance continued 4. Why did the invention of printing with movable type have a significant impact? a. Printed documents were more beautiful than handwritten ones. b. c. Books became more expensive and therefore were more valued. d. The ability to print with movable type gave Germany an edge over other countries. The wide availability of reading material allowed ideas to spread quickly.
Quiz - The Renaissance continued 5. How did the monk Martin Luther contribute to the beginning of the Reformation? a. He renewed people’s devotion to studying and following the words of the pope. b. He taught that other religions were as valid as Christianity. c. d. He ridiculed ancient habits and traditions, such as superciliousness. He developed a personal form of Christianity which was not based on interpretation.
Quiz - The Renaissance continued 6. Why were so many people in England dissatisfied with the Church of England in the mid-1500s? a b. They felt that the pope was too remote, and they wanted him to have more of a presence in England. c. They were beginning to reject the idea of leading a religious life. d. They disagreed with the notion that religion was a private matter between an individual and God. They felt that the Church was insufficiently reformed and was merely a copy of Catholicism.
Quiz - The Renaissance continued 7. In what way could King Henry VIII of England be considered a “Renaissance man”? a. He went to extremes to ensure that he had a male heir. b. He ended foreign invasions of England by creating the Royal Navy. c. He was arrogant and ruthless, and he was unfaithful to his wives. d. He was literary, musical, athletic, and scholarly.
Quiz - The Renaissance continued 8. England’s independence from the Catholic countries of the Mediterranean was ensured by a. Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press. b. c. the readmission of Jews to England in 1655. d. Queen Elizabeth I’s execution of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. the English Royal Navy’s defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588.
Quiz - The Renaissance continued 9. The end of the English Renaissance was characterized by a. the increased growth of moral and religious values. b. the pillaging of resources from the Americas. c. the rise of humanism as a way of thought and study. d. increasing interest in secular, rather than religious, values.
Quiz - The Renaissance continued 10. The Catholic Church was very powerful in fourteenth-century Italy—in a way that most people would find unacceptable today. Why would most modern people in the United States object to such power? a. The Church would help artists whose work was not always in the public interest. b. The Church would discourage classical learning and thus suppress scholarship. c. d. The Church’s values would be out of date and incompatible with modern lifestyles. The Church’s political power would interfere with United States citizens’ constitutional right to freedom of religion.