Presentation on theme: "MEDIEVAL TIMES. Fall of Rome In 330 AD the Roman Empire Splits The new capital is Constantinople The Germanic Barbarians invade the Western Roman territories."— Presentation transcript:
Fall of Rome In 330 AD the Roman Empire Splits The new capital is Constantinople The Germanic Barbarians invade the Western Roman territories and by the 4 th and 5 th century Western Rome disappears Visigoths, Lombards, Goths, Vandals, etc..
Germanic Invasions Many convert to Christianity By the 5 th century many Roman soldiers were actually German The Lombards settle in Italy and eventually brought down the entire Western Roman Empire Arian heresy—Germanic Christians at odds with the Pope
Franks (French) Founded by Clovis the 1 st Merovingian King By 8 th century his line will fall due to heavy inbreeding Charles “the HAMMER” Martel Victor at the Battles of Pointers and Tours over the Muslims Savior of Christendom
Pepin II: Anointed by Pope Boniface I in Italy as the defender of the faith Last Merovingian King Has 2 sons: Charles and Charlemon Charlemon disappears and Charles become the sole heir Charles will due to his conquest of the Germanic invaders be dubbed CHARLEMAGNE---Charles the Great Crowned by the Pope on Christmas day 800 AD beginning the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire All leaders are only recognized if crowned by the Pope It will last in some fashion until 1806 AD This created a very close relationship between the Germans and the Italians After the death of Charlemagne his empire is divided to his three sons Louis-Germany, Lothair-Italy, Charles II-France
FEUDALISM King passed out land Noble or lord controlled land given by king Vassals oversaw lands of the lords
AGE OF 21 SHOW SKILLS WITH WEAPONS DUBBING OF THE KNIGHT Promise to KEEP CHRISTIAN FAITH HONEST AND FORTHRIGHT PROTECT THOSE WEAKER THAN THEY
CASTLES OF THE MIDDLE AGES The Middle Ages saw castles, chivalry, and the birth of Romance. Castles in Europe evolved from the first wooden forts made to lodge a garrison to spectacular stone structures able to support a small army for extended times Castles in Europe evolved from the first wooden forts made to lodge a garrison to spectacular stone structures able to support a small army for extended times Battle and beauty were now married together. Battle and beauty were now married together.
William the Conqueror's use of castles during the Norman invasion changed the way medieval battles were fought for hundreds of years. To withstand besieging, castle walls were sometimes constructed to be up to 30 feet thick. Some fortresses had towers soaring a hundred feet high. The castle reigned supreme until the use of gunpowder and artillery made them rather obsolete in the late 17th century. These medieval strongholds exploited as much strength as possible.
Edward the Confessor Restores peace to England Dies with no heir He was 1/2 Norman (Fr) and 1/2 Saxon (EN)
TURKS & MONGOLS GHENGIS KHAN1206—ALL OF ASIA SELJUK TURKS—ASIA TO MIDDLE EAST –MANZIKERT 1071, SLAVE RULERS MAMLUKS— TURKS THAT TOOK POWER TIMERLANE—1390’S—TURKISH –UNITED TURKS & MONGOLS MUSLIM--RUTHLESS MARCO POLO —1 ST EUROPEAN TO VISIT CHINA—KUBLAI KHAN OTTOMAN TURKS– –DEFEAT MONGOLS, BYZANTINES AND CONQUER THE EAST
The Catholic Church Dominant spiritual and political leader of middle ages Very few people did not recognize the churches authority Sacraments: Church rituals Latin: language of the church Problems with the church: –Lay investiture –Heresy –Friars –Disunity ***THE INQUISITION*** CONVERSION OF HERETICS BY FORCE SET UP BY THE CHURCH IN 1232***
The Crusades Called for 1 st after the Battle of Manzikert in which the Muslims defeat the Eastern Christians (unanswered) A crusade is a holy war The crusades would lead to over 100 years of holy war in the east The Christian crusaders would introduce the idea of JIHAD to the Muslim World
POPE URBAN II Called for 1 st crusade against the Muslims in the east Preached the idea of a JUST AND HOLY WAR Offered INDULGENCES to all crusaders Did all of this at the Council at Clermont “Jerusalem is now held captive by the enemies of Christ, those who do not know God, the heathen. Jerusalem wants to be free and begs you to come and help”!!!!!
1st CRUSADE A pilgrimage for INDULGENCES Peter the Hermit and the Peoples Crusade Harsh and trying crusade The call to TAKE THE CROSS was a hard reality The 1 st crusade takes the Holy land (Jerusalem) in 1099 (let in through a window) ONLY SUCCESSFUL CRUSADE IN THE EAST
RESULTS OF FIRST CRUSADE Christians control Jerusalem (briefly) Creation of military orders (Knights Templar, Teutonic, Hostpitallers) Cannot hold the Holy Land for lack of settlers Cause great hatred between Muslims of the east and the Christians **Actions of the Christians show no MERCY**
BAPHOMET AND THE FALL OF THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR ACCUSED BY PHILLIP THE FAIR OF FRANCE OF HERESY JUDGED BY POPE CLERMONT V AS GUILTY ALL ARRESTED AND EXECUTED AFTER CONFESSING (TORTURED) IN 1307
Other Crusades 2 nd Crusade: failed Miserably, lead by King Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany Muslims wiped out Crusaders Battle of Hattin: Last Stand of 2 nd Crusade Saladin: Kurdish leader that defeats the Crusaders and retakes Jerusalem in 1187
Crusades of Kings Lead by Richard I, Fredrick I, & Philip II Left in 1189, Failed to regain Jerusalem Richard executes 2700 children and women at Acre to prove a point to Saladin Fredrick drowns halfway in and his men leave, this caused the failure of the 2 nd crusade Eventually Richard the Lionheart will retreat back to England and be Kidnapped on the way by the King of Austria and ransomed back to England
MAJOR CRUSADING PEOPLE INNOCENT III: CALLED FOR 4 TH CRUSADE, MOST POWERFUL POPE IN HISTORY FREDRICK II—TAKES JERUSALEM WITHOUT A FIGHT BUT IS UNRECOGNIZED LOUIS IX (ST. LOUIS) KING OF FRANCE WHOSE FAILED CRUSADE ENDED ALL REAL EFFORTS
EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES IN THE WESTERN WORLD CENTER OF CHRISTIANITY (JERUSALEM) HELD BY MUSLIMS LOSS OF RESPECT FOR CHURCH AND CRUSADING (BECAME POLITICAL) DISASTEROUS FOR THE JEWS DID LEAD TO INCREASED DESIRE FOR EASTERN GOODS LEADING TO THE AGE OF EXPLORATION ADVANCES IN SHIP BUILDING AND NAVIGATION
100 YEARS WAR WAR BETWEEN FRANCE AND ENGLAND FROM 1337-1453 (112 YEARS) ENGLISH GAINED AN ADVANTAGE UNDER HENRY V, AFTER HIS DEATH WAR RESUMES JOAN OF ARC, PEASANT FRENCH GIRL SAID SHE HAD SPOKEN TO GOD HELPED TO BUILD FRENCH MORALE
MAJOR BATTLES OF THE 100 YEARS WAR CRECY: A GREAT ENGLISH VICTORY –LONGBOW DEVASTATES THE FRENCH FORCES, NO REAL BATTLES FOR 10 YEARS AFTER –“ARROWS FELL SO THICK IT SEEMED AS IF IT HAD BEGAN TO SNOW”
POINTERS AND AGINCOURT: –BLACK PRINCE ONCE AGAIN FACED THE ONSLAUGHT OF THE LONGBOW –KING JOHN AND THE BLACK PRINCE ARE CAPTURED BY THE ENGLISH –THESE LOSSES BY THE FRENCH AND THE LOSS AT TROYES ALL LEAD TO ENGLISH KING HENRY V MARRYING CATHERINE OF VALOIS –AFTER 100 YEARS OF WARFARE ON FRENCH SOIL THE WAR ENDED
RESULTS OF THE 100 YEARS WAR ENDED ENGLISH ATTEMPTS TO CONTROL ALL OF EUROPE PROBLEMS WITH ROYAL FAMILY OF ENGLAND (HENRY’S MARRIAGE TO HOUSE OF VALIOS) MILITARY ADVANCES, VALUED OF FEUDAL KNIGHTS DISAPPEARS ESTABLISHMENT OF MANY OF THE MODERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ***NOBILITY AND SECULAR INFIGHTING AND NO LEADERSHIP***
WAR OF THE ROSES STRUGGLE FOR THE ENGLISH THRONE RED –HOUSE OF LANCASTER WHITE ---HOUSE OF YORK AT THE END OF A BLOODY CONFLICT, INCLUDING THE MURDER OF FAMILY IN THE TOWER IN LONDON IN THE END THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER AND HENRY VII TAKE CONTROL OF THE ENGLISH THRONE AND THE TUDOR DYNASTY IN CHARGE BEGINS 1380’S ENDS AT BOSWORTH FIELD WITH THE DEATH OF RICHARD III AT THE HANDS OF HENRY VII, FIRST TUDOR KING OF ENGLAND
Important dates of the middle ages 800: Charlemagne crowned emperor 1066: Battle of Hastings 1099: capture of Jerusalem by Crusaders 1198: Fall of Jerusalem to Saladin 1215: Magna Carta 1348-1350: Worst of Black Death 1337-1453: 100 Years War 1455-1485: English War of the Roses