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Philip II and the Coming of Macedon March 5 th, 2012 www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedonia/P.

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1 Philip II and the Coming of Macedon March 5 th, 2012

2 Sources For The Life of Philip II Theopompos of Chios ( BCE) Theopompos of Chios ( BCE) Demosthenes ( BCE) Demosthenes ( BCE) Isocrates ( BCE) Isocrates ( BCE) Diodorus Siculus. Diodorus Siculus. Plutarch. Plutarch.

3 General Remarks Greece is broken. Greece is broken. Sparta a non-entity. Sparta a non-entity. Thebes not strong enough to realize its ambitions of hegemony. Thebes not strong enough to realize its ambitions of hegemony. Athens suffering from economic decline; still harboring delusions of hegemony; political realities of the fourth century BCE make them increasingly disposed toward to peace and cooperation. Athens suffering from economic decline; still harboring delusions of hegemony; political realities of the fourth century BCE make them increasingly disposed toward to peace and cooperation. Other Greeks states (i.e. Pherae in Thessaly, Phocis in Boeotia) attempt to fill the power vacuum; not quite up to the task. Other Greeks states (i.e. Pherae in Thessaly, Phocis in Boeotia) attempt to fill the power vacuum; not quite up to the task. Macedon the rising power; Greece divided, weak, and ripe for the taking. Macedon the rising power; Greece divided, weak, and ripe for the taking. Macedon will subdue Greece through: 1. Military superiority. 2. Diplomatic chicanery. 3. Sound policy when victorious. Macedon will subdue Greece through: 1. Military superiority. 2. Diplomatic chicanery. 3. Sound policy when victorious. Inclusiveness of Macedonian policy in Greece augmented Macedonian power with every victory. Inclusiveness of Macedonian policy in Greece augmented Macedonian power with every victory.

4 Macedonian Society Very “Homeric” in outlook. Very “Homeric” in outlook. Highly militaristic (i.e. a warrior elite ruling over a serf population). Highly militaristic (i.e. a warrior elite ruling over a serf population). Monarchical government (i.e. rule by a basileus). Monarchical government (i.e. rule by a basileus). Crown was “quasi-hereditary” (i.e. the noble – “companions” – ratified or rejected the heir). Crown was “quasi-hereditary” (i.e. the noble – “companions” – ratified or rejected the heir). Macedonian polygamy + infighting between nobles result in frequent dynastic conflict. Macedonian polygamy + infighting between nobles result in frequent dynastic conflict. Frequent dynastic conflict + incessant warfare with neighboring ethne (i.e. Thracians, Illyrians, Dardanians etc.) keep Macedon weak and divided. Frequent dynastic conflict + incessant warfare with neighboring ethne (i.e. Thracians, Illyrians, Dardanians etc.) keep Macedon weak and divided. Successful basileus had to: 1. Gain and retain the approval of the “companions.” 2. Gain and retain the loyalty of the neighboring chieftains. 3. Provide for a smooth transition of power to a clearly designated heir. Successful basileus had to: 1. Gain and retain the approval of the “companions.” 2. Gain and retain the loyalty of the neighboring chieftains. 3. Provide for a smooth transition of power to a clearly designated heir.

5 A Multi-Ethnic Hegemony “So they assembled at Doberos and made preparations to cross over the mountains and invade lower Makedonia, the domain of Perdikkas. Up-country, the Lynkestians and Elimiots and other peoples are also part of Makedonia: they have their own kings but are nonetheless allies and subjects of the coastal Makedonians. This country by the sea – which we now know as Makedonia – was first acquired by Alexandros the father of Perdikkas and his ancestors, who were originally descendants of Temenos from Argos…And these Makedonians also conquered, and still hold, certain places that belonged to other peoples…” (Thucydides II Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 321A). “So they assembled at Doberos and made preparations to cross over the mountains and invade lower Makedonia, the domain of Perdikkas. Up-country, the Lynkestians and Elimiots and other peoples are also part of Makedonia: they have their own kings but are nonetheless allies and subjects of the coastal Makedonians. This country by the sea – which we now know as Makedonia – was first acquired by Alexandros the father of Perdikkas and his ancestors, who were originally descendants of Temenos from Argos…And these Makedonians also conquered, and still hold, certain places that belonged to other peoples…” (Thucydides II Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 321A).

6 The Backdrop: A Quick Review Early 370s BCE – Jason of Pherae becomes tagus (i.e. basileus); unites all of Thessaly under the hegemony of Pherae. Early 370s BCE – Jason of Pherae becomes tagus (i.e. basileus); unites all of Thessaly under the hegemony of Pherae. 370 BCE – Jason assassinated and succeeded by his brother (Alexander); Alexander unable to maintain the unity of Thessaly; Assistance sought and given from Athens; rebel cities seek and receive help from Macedon. 370 BCE – Jason assassinated and succeeded by his brother (Alexander); Alexander unable to maintain the unity of Thessaly; Assistance sought and given from Athens; rebel cities seek and receive help from Macedon. 369 BCE – Macedonian troops descend into Thessaly and seize control of Larissa and Crannon; remaining rebel towns of Thessaly place themselves under Theban protection. 369 BCE – Macedonian troops descend into Thessaly and seize control of Larissa and Crannon; remaining rebel towns of Thessaly place themselves under Theban protection. Three-way struggle: Pherae + Athens vs. Macedon vs. Thebes + Thessalian rebels. Three-way struggle: Pherae + Athens vs. Macedon vs. Thebes + Thessalian rebels.

7 Dynastic Conflict in Macedon from 370 BCE to 359 BCE 370 BCE – Alexander II becomes basileus. 370 BCE – Alexander II becomes basileus. 369 BCE – Ptolemy of Alorus rebels against Alexander II in attempted coup; Supported by Eurydice (stepmother of Alexander II). 369 BCE – Ptolemy of Alorus rebels against Alexander II in attempted coup; Supported by Eurydice (stepmother of Alexander II). Pelopidas (Thebes) invited to adjudicate; power-sharing deal did not last. Pelopidas (Thebes) invited to adjudicate; power-sharing deal did not last. Alexander II murdered by Ptolemy and civil war erupted. Alexander II murdered by Ptolemy and civil war erupted. Athenian fleet under Iphicrates operating in Thermaic Gulf; Iphicrates an adopted son of Amyntas III (father of Alexander II). Athenian fleet under Iphicrates operating in Thermaic Gulf; Iphicrates an adopted son of Amyntas III (father of Alexander II). Eurydice visits Iphicrates with her two sons from Amyntas III (Perdicas III and Philip II). Eurydice visits Iphicrates with her two sons from Amyntas III (Perdicas III and Philip II). Iphicrates brokers a settlement; Perdicas III (still a boy) to be king with Ptolemy as regent. Iphicrates brokers a settlement; Perdicas III (still a boy) to be king with Ptolemy as regent. 368 BCE – Pelopidas moves north to: 1. Disrupt Athenian operations in Chalcidice. 2. Support rebel cities in Thessaly. 3. Detach Macedonians from Athens. 368 BCE – Pelopidas moves north to: 1. Disrupt Athenian operations in Chalcidice. 2. Support rebel cities in Thessaly. 3. Detach Macedonians from Athens. Thebes secures and alliance with Ptolemy; hostages sent to Thebes to ensure the treaty; Philip II among the hostages. Thebes secures and alliance with Ptolemy; hostages sent to Thebes to ensure the treaty; Philip II among the hostages. 365 BCE – Perdicas III grown up; murders Ptolemy; restores alliance with Athens; Athens agrees in exchange for Amphipolis; Upon accession Perdicas immediately takes Amphipolis back; Athenians enraged. 365 BCE – Perdicas III grown up; murders Ptolemy; restores alliance with Athens; Athens agrees in exchange for Amphipolis; Upon accession Perdicas immediately takes Amphipolis back; Athenians enraged. 360 BCE – Perdicas III killed fighting Illyrians; succeeded by son Amyntas IV (still a boy); Philip II recalled from Thebes as regent. 360 BCE – Perdicas III killed fighting Illyrians; succeeded by son Amyntas IV (still a boy); Philip II recalled from Thebes as regent. 359 BCE – Athens opens negotiations with Philip; will support Philip II in a bid for power if he gives them Amphipolis; Amyntas murdered; Philip II becomes basileus. 359 BCE – Athens opens negotiations with Philip; will support Philip II in a bid for power if he gives them Amphipolis; Amyntas murdered; Philip II becomes basileus.

8 Pelopidas Brings the Young Philip II to Thebes (368 BCE) “Having arrived in Makedonia, settled the disputes there and brought back the exiles, Pelopidas took as hostage the king’s brother Philippos, together with 30 other sons of the most distinguished men, bringing them to live in Thebes; thus he showed the Greeks what progress the Theban state had made in the respect paid to its power and the trust placed in its justice. This was the Philippos who subsequently went to war to deny the Greeks their liberty, but who at this time was a boy. In Thebes he lived with Pammenes, and because of this was believed to have become an enthusiastic follower of Epaminondas – perhaps because he grasped how effectively Epaminondas conducted his wars and the role of a strategos. Yet that was only a small part of what made Epaminondas outstanding: it was his self-control, his justice, his greatness of heart and his gentleness which made him a truly great man, and these were qualities in which Philippos had no share, by either nature or imitation.” (Plutarch, Pelopidas Crawford and Whitehead, Doc. 324). “Having arrived in Makedonia, settled the disputes there and brought back the exiles, Pelopidas took as hostage the king’s brother Philippos, together with 30 other sons of the most distinguished men, bringing them to live in Thebes; thus he showed the Greeks what progress the Theban state had made in the respect paid to its power and the trust placed in its justice. This was the Philippos who subsequently went to war to deny the Greeks their liberty, but who at this time was a boy. In Thebes he lived with Pammenes, and because of this was believed to have become an enthusiastic follower of Epaminondas – perhaps because he grasped how effectively Epaminondas conducted his wars and the role of a strategos. Yet that was only a small part of what made Epaminondas outstanding: it was his self-control, his justice, his greatness of heart and his gentleness which made him a truly great man, and these were qualities in which Philippos had no share, by either nature or imitation.” (Plutarch, Pelopidas Crawford and Whitehead, Doc. 324).

9 The Reign of Philip II of Macedon: 359 BCE – 336 BCE

10 Securing His Position: The Reign of Philip II from 359 BCE – 354 BCE 359 BCE - Philip immediately secures his precarious position. 359 BCE - Philip immediately secures his precarious position. 358 BCE - Coup provoked outlying ethne into rebellion; bought off. 358 BCE - Coup provoked outlying ethne into rebellion; bought off. 357 BCE – Secures himself with three dynastic marriages (Olympias the Molossian, Phila of Elymiotis, and Audata of Illyria). 357 BCE – Secures himself with three dynastic marriages (Olympias the Molossian, Phila of Elymiotis, and Audata of Illyria). Economic and military reforms. Economic and military reforms.

11 Diplomacy by Marriage “Philippos always married with war in mind. At any rate, in the 22 years of his reign, as Satyrus says in his Life of Philippos, he married Audata the Illyrian and had by her a daughter, Kynna; and he also married Phila, a sister of Derdad and Machatas. And in his desire to conciliate the nation of the Thessalians he had children by two Thessalian women: one of them was Nikesipolis of Pherai, who bore him a daughter, Thessalonike; the other was Philinna of Larisa, by whom he had Arridaios. He also acquired the kingdom of the Molossians by his marriage to Olympias, by whom he had Alexander (the Great) and Kleopatra. And when he took control of Thrake, Kothelas the king of the Thrakians came to bring him his daughter Meda and many gifts; Philippos married her, adding her to Olympias.” (Athenaeus XIII. 557B-D. Crawford and Whitehead, Doc. 331). “Philippos always married with war in mind. At any rate, in the 22 years of his reign, as Satyrus says in his Life of Philippos, he married Audata the Illyrian and had by her a daughter, Kynna; and he also married Phila, a sister of Derdad and Machatas. And in his desire to conciliate the nation of the Thessalians he had children by two Thessalian women: one of them was Nikesipolis of Pherai, who bore him a daughter, Thessalonike; the other was Philinna of Larisa, by whom he had Arridaios. He also acquired the kingdom of the Molossians by his marriage to Olympias, by whom he had Alexander (the Great) and Kleopatra. And when he took control of Thrake, Kothelas the king of the Thrakians came to bring him his daughter Meda and many gifts; Philippos married her, adding her to Olympias.” (Athenaeus XIII. 557B-D. Crawford and Whitehead, Doc. 331).

12 The Mining Operations of Philip II (359 BCE) “After this Philippos went to the polis of Krenides, and after increasing its size with a mass of settlers renamed it after himself: Philippoi. Then turning to the gold mines in its chora, which were altogether paltry and unimportant, he contrived to increase their output to such an extent that they were able to yield him revenues of more than 1,000 talents. So very soon he amassed a fortune from these mines, and thus with the abundance money elevated the Makedonian kingdom to ever greater and greater superiority: for with the gold coinage which he struck – which came to be known after him, as Philippeioi – he organised a considerable force of mercenaries, as well as bribing many Greeks to betray their native cities.” (Diodorus XVI Crawford and Whitehead, Doc. 327). “After this Philippos went to the polis of Krenides, and after increasing its size with a mass of settlers renamed it after himself: Philippoi. Then turning to the gold mines in its chora, which were altogether paltry and unimportant, he contrived to increase their output to such an extent that they were able to yield him revenues of more than 1,000 talents. So very soon he amassed a fortune from these mines, and thus with the abundance money elevated the Makedonian kingdom to ever greater and greater superiority: for with the gold coinage which he struck – which came to be known after him, as Philippeioi – he organised a considerable force of mercenaries, as well as bribing many Greeks to betray their native cities.” (Diodorus XVI Crawford and Whitehead, Doc. 327).

13 Philip’s Reform of the Army Transformed Macedonian irregulars into a permanent standing army. Transformed Macedonian irregulars into a permanent standing army. Imbued ethnically diverse population with sense of Macedonian nationalism. Imbued ethnically diverse population with sense of Macedonian nationalism. Constant training and drill. Constant training and drill. Hetairoi (companions) = Formed into an elite heavy cavalry unit; ca. 600 in total; a new aristocracy. Hetairoi (companions) = Formed into an elite heavy cavalry unit; ca. 600 in total; a new aristocracy. Hypaspists = Crack heavy infantry unit. Hypaspists = Crack heavy infantry unit. Pezhetairoi (Foot Companions) = Macedonian phalanx; battalion 1500 men strong; deeper; armed with sarissa (i.e. 6 meter thrusting spear); drilled routinely. Pezhetairoi (Foot Companions) = Macedonian phalanx; battalion 1500 men strong; deeper; armed with sarissa (i.e. 6 meter thrusting spear); drilled routinely. Agrianians (Elite light infantry; armed with javelins; no armor or shields; stationed on Macedonian right, often together with the companions) Agrianians (Elite light infantry; armed with javelins; no armor or shields; stationed on Macedonian right, often together with the companions)

14 The Macedonian Phalanx Artwork by Johnny Shumate ny_shumates_portfolio/Macedonian- Phalanx.aspx

15 Diodorus on Philip’s Military Reforms “So because of the disastrous battle and the magnitude of the dangers pressing in upon them the Makedonians were utterly at a loss. Nevertheless, despite the fears and dangers which threatened them, Philippos was not dismayed by the magnitude of the perils that lay in store: instead, bringing the Makedonians together in a series of assemblies and using the persuasive power of his oratory to exhort them to courage, he filled them with heart; and once he had satisfactorily organised the deployment of his forces for the better and equipped his men suitably with the weapons of war, he held constant musters of the men under arms and competitive drill- manoeuvres. He also devised the close-packed order and the equipment of the phalanx – imitating the heroes of Troy, with their shields held closely together; he was indeed the originator of the Makedonian phalanx. He was also gentle in his dealings with men, and sought by his gifts and promises to become supreme in popular favour, as well as making skilful moves to counteract the multitude of impending dangers.” (Diodorus XVI Crawford and Whitehead, Doc. 325). “So because of the disastrous battle and the magnitude of the dangers pressing in upon them the Makedonians were utterly at a loss. Nevertheless, despite the fears and dangers which threatened them, Philippos was not dismayed by the magnitude of the perils that lay in store: instead, bringing the Makedonians together in a series of assemblies and using the persuasive power of his oratory to exhort them to courage, he filled them with heart; and once he had satisfactorily organised the deployment of his forces for the better and equipped his men suitably with the weapons of war, he held constant musters of the men under arms and competitive drill- manoeuvres. He also devised the close-packed order and the equipment of the phalanx – imitating the heroes of Troy, with their shields held closely together; he was indeed the originator of the Makedonian phalanx. He was also gentle in his dealings with men, and sought by his gifts and promises to become supreme in popular favour, as well as making skilful moves to counteract the multitude of impending dangers.” (Diodorus XVI Crawford and Whitehead, Doc. 325).

16 Philip’s Operations in the North Policy of interference in Greek politics to his own advantage. Policy of interference in Greek politics to his own advantage. 359 BCE – Betrayed Athens and took back Amphipolis (wanted access to the gold mines of Krenides); Macedonian capital transferred from Aegae to Pella. 359 BCE – Betrayed Athens and took back Amphipolis (wanted access to the gold mines of Krenides); Macedonian capital transferred from Aegae to Pella BCE – Philip preoccupied with rebellious ethne BCE – Philip preoccupied with rebellious ethne. 356 BCE – Furthering Macedonian interests in Chalcidice (i.e. Seizes Pydna and Potidaea). 356 BCE – Furthering Macedonian interests in Chalcidice (i.e. Seizes Pydna and Potidaea). Olynthus (hegemon of the Chalcidian League) alarmed at Philip’s behavior; urges Athens to join in a common resistance; Athens refuses. Olynthus (hegemon of the Chalcidian League) alarmed at Philip’s behavior; urges Athens to join in a common resistance; Athens refuses. Athenians offered Amphipolis as compensation for Potidaea; Athenians accept and war avoided. Athenians offered Amphipolis as compensation for Potidaea; Athenians accept and war avoided. Philip takes back Amphipolis; Athens without any foothold in Chalcidice. Philip takes back Amphipolis; Athens without any foothold in Chalcidice. Athenians preoccupied with the Social War ( BCE). Athenians preoccupied with the Social War ( BCE).

17 Affairs in the Eastern Aegean: The Outbreak of the Social War ( BCE) “While these things were going on, the inhabitants of Euboia fell into stasis among themselves, and when one side summoned the Boiotians to its assistance and the other the Athenians, war broke out in Euboia. Several battles and skirmishes took place, in which sometimes the Thebans were superior and sometimes the Athenians carried off the victory. No important pitched battle occurred, yet, even when the island had been devastated by internecine warfare and many men had been killed on both sides, the two sides barely came to an agreement as a result of this lesson taught by the disasters and made peace with each other. Now the Boiotians returned home and remained quiet, but the Athenians suffered the revolt of Chios, Rhodes, Kos and, moreover, Byzantion, and became involved in the war called the War with the Allies which lasted three years.” (Diodorus XVI Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 339). “While these things were going on, the inhabitants of Euboia fell into stasis among themselves, and when one side summoned the Boiotians to its assistance and the other the Athenians, war broke out in Euboia. Several battles and skirmishes took place, in which sometimes the Thebans were superior and sometimes the Athenians carried off the victory. No important pitched battle occurred, yet, even when the island had been devastated by internecine warfare and many men had been killed on both sides, the two sides barely came to an agreement as a result of this lesson taught by the disasters and made peace with each other. Now the Boiotians returned home and remained quiet, but the Athenians suffered the revolt of Chios, Rhodes, Kos and, moreover, Byzantion, and became involved in the war called the War with the Allies which lasted three years.” (Diodorus XVI Crawford & Whitehead, Doc. 339).

18 The Struggle for Control of the Eastern Mediterranean The overbearing attitude of Athens (exacerbated by the loss of Euboia and in Chalcidice) stirred up revolt among the allies. The overbearing attitude of Athens (exacerbated by the loss of Euboia and in Chalcidice) stirred up revolt among the allies. 357 BCE - Chios, Cos, Rhodes, and Byzantium overthrow pro-Athenian democracies; encouraged by Mausolus of Caria; Cabrias sent against Chios and is killed; Chares sent against Byzantium. 357 BCE - Chios, Cos, Rhodes, and Byzantium overthrow pro-Athenian democracies; encouraged by Mausolus of Caria; Cabrias sent against Chios and is killed; Chares sent against Byzantium. 356 BCE – Athenians send out Timotheus and Iphicrates to help Chares; attempt to retake Chios fails. 356 BCE – Athenians send out Timotheus and Iphicrates to help Chares; attempt to retake Chios fails. Chares accuses Timotheus and Iphicrates of treachery; Chares also accused by Iphicrates and Timotheus; Iphicrates acquitted but Timotheus driven into exile. Chares accuses Timotheus and Iphicrates of treachery; Chares also accused by Iphicrates and Timotheus; Iphicrates acquitted but Timotheus driven into exile. 355 BCE – Chares returns east with a fleet but w/o sufficient funds. 355 BCE – Chares returns east with a fleet but w/o sufficient funds. Supported Artabazus (satrap of Phrygia) in rebellion against Persian King (Artaxerxes) in exchange for funds; Artaxerxes demands the Athenians leave Asia Minor; Athens gives up the war. Supported Artabazus (satrap of Phrygia) in rebellion against Persian King (Artaxerxes) in exchange for funds; Artaxerxes demands the Athenians leave Asia Minor; Athens gives up the war. Persians rumored to be preparing for war vs. Athens. Persians rumored to be preparing for war vs. Athens. Burst of patriotism in Athens; but voices of peace prevail. Burst of patriotism in Athens; but voices of peace prevail. 354 BCE – Independence of Chios, Cos, Rhodes, and Byzantium recognized; other allies fall away one by one. 354 BCE – Independence of Chios, Cos, Rhodes, and Byzantium recognized; other allies fall away one by one.

19 Demosthenes Urges an Exhausted Athens toward Peace “I agree that the King is the common enemy of all the Greeks, yet I would not on that account advise you to undertake a war against him by yourselves apart from the rest; for I observe that the Greeks themselves are by no means common friends of each other, but that some of them place more confidence in the King than in some of themselves. From this state of things I conclude that it is in your interest to be careful that your grounds for beginning a war are fair and just, but to prepare for everything which is necessary and settle on that.” (Demosthenes XIV, On the Symmories 3. Crawford and Whitehead, Doc. 340) “I agree that the King is the common enemy of all the Greeks, yet I would not on that account advise you to undertake a war against him by yourselves apart from the rest; for I observe that the Greeks themselves are by no means common friends of each other, but that some of them place more confidence in the King than in some of themselves. From this state of things I conclude that it is in your interest to be careful that your grounds for beginning a war are fair and just, but to prepare for everything which is necessary and settle on that.” (Demosthenes XIV, On the Symmories 3. Crawford and Whitehead, Doc. 340)

20 Phocis and the Sacred War to 352 BCE After the death of Epaminondas and Pelopidas, Thebes gradually losing control of Boeotian League. After the death of Epaminondas and Pelopidas, Thebes gradually losing control of Boeotian League. Phocis attempts to assert its independence. Phocis attempts to assert its independence. Thebes induces the Amphictions of Delphi to accuse the rebels of sacrilege; huge fine imposed but not paid. Thebes induces the Amphictions of Delphi to accuse the rebels of sacrilege; huge fine imposed but not paid. 356 BCE – Phocians seize Delphi and its treasury; War with Thebes; Phocis promised assistance from Athens and Sparta. 356 BCE – Phocians seize Delphi and its treasury; War with Thebes; Phocis promised assistance from Athens and Sparta. 355 BCE – Ongoing stasis in Thessaly (i.e. Pherae trying to exert control); Phocis involved backing Pherae; Other Thessalians seek help from Macedon. 355 BCE – Ongoing stasis in Thessaly (i.e. Pherae trying to exert control); Phocis involved backing Pherae; Other Thessalians seek help from Macedon. 354 BCE – Thebans defeat Phocians (b. of Neon) but to no result. 354 BCE – Thebans defeat Phocians (b. of Neon) but to no result. 353 BCE – Philip II enters Thessaly; defeated (twice) by the Phocians and Pherae. 353 BCE – Philip II enters Thessaly; defeated (twice) by the Phocians and Pherae. 352 BCE – Philip II re-enters Thessaly and drives out Phocians (b. of the Crocus Fields); Philip master of all Thessaly; preparing to march into Boeotia (to avenge Phocian sacrilege); Phocis and Athens occupy pass at Thermopylae and Philip withdraws; Athens and Sparta on collision course with Macedon. 352 BCE – Philip II re-enters Thessaly and drives out Phocians (b. of the Crocus Fields); Philip master of all Thessaly; preparing to march into Boeotia (to avenge Phocian sacrilege); Phocis and Athens occupy pass at Thermopylae and Philip withdraws; Athens and Sparta on collision course with Macedon. Indecisive fighting in the Peloponnese. Indecisive fighting in the Peloponnese.

21 From the Outbreak of the Sacred War to the Peace of Philocrates BCE Athens forced to cultivate relations with Thrace in lieu of losses in Chalcidice. Athens forced to cultivate relations with Thrace in lieu of losses in Chalcidice. 352 BCE – Thracians attempt to attack on Macedon; Philip II returns from Thessaly and defeats the Thracians; extends Macedonian control all the way to Propontis; Macedonians threatening Athenian grain supply; Demosthenes and the First Philippic. 352 BCE – Thracians attempt to attack on Macedon; Philip II returns from Thessaly and defeats the Thracians; extends Macedonian control all the way to Propontis; Macedonians threatening Athenian grain supply; Demosthenes and the First Philippic BCE – Olynthus leads the Chalcidian states to rebel from Macedon; Athens asked for assistance; Thebes calls on Macedonian support v. Phocis BCE – Olynthus leads the Chalcidian states to rebel from Macedon; Athens asked for assistance; Thebes calls on Macedonian support v. Phocis 348 BCE – Demosthenes convinces Athens that Philip must be stopped; 2000 troops sent to Olynthus but arrive too late. 348 BCE – Demosthenes convinces Athens that Philip must be stopped; 2000 troops sent to Olynthus but arrive too late BCE - Chalcidice incorporated into Macedonia BCE - Chalcidice incorporated into Macedonia. 346 BCE – Philip II moves against Phocis; seizes Thermopylae; Phocis surrenders; Philip II occupies Boeotia and is given majority seats on the Amphyctionic Council; The Peace of Philocrates. 346 BCE – Philip II moves against Phocis; seizes Thermopylae; Phocis surrenders; Philip II occupies Boeotia and is given majority seats on the Amphyctionic Council; The Peace of Philocrates.

22 From the Failure of the Peace of Philocrates to the B. of Chaeronea BCE – Philip II forced to withdraw to deal with rebellions in Epirus and Thrace BCE – Philip II forced to withdraw to deal with rebellions in Epirus and Thrace. 341 BCE – Demosthenes takes advantage of Philip’s preoccupation; sails to Byzantium and entices them away from Macedon. 341 BCE – Demosthenes takes advantage of Philip’s preoccupation; sails to Byzantium and entices them away from Macedon. 340 BCE – Philip seizes Byzantium and Perinthus; Black Sea grain fleet seized; Athens compelled to fight. 340 BCE – Philip seizes Byzantium and Perinthus; Black Sea grain fleet seized; Athens compelled to fight. 338 BCE – Philip II descends on Greece; coalition of Greek allies, led by Athens, decisively defeated by Philip II at b. of Chaeronea. 338 BCE – Philip II descends on Greece; coalition of Greek allies, led by Athens, decisively defeated by Philip II at b. of Chaeronea. Philip in complete control of Greece. Philip in complete control of Greece.

23 The Oath of the Council of Corinth “Oath. I swear by Zeus, Earth, Sun, Poseidon, Athena, Ares, and all the gods and goddesses. I will abide by the peace, and I will not break the agreements with Philip the Macedonian, nor will I take up arms with hostile intent against any one of those who abide by the oaths either by land or by sea. I will seize in war by any device or stratagem any city or fort or harbor belonging to those who share the peace. Nor will I suppress the kingdom of Philip or of his descendants or the constitutions in force among any of those [who share the peace], when they swore the oaths concerning the peace. I will not commit any act which contravenes the agreements nor will I permit any other to do so. If any one breaks the agreements, I will assist those who had been wronged in accordance with their requests. I will fight against those who will break the common peace as the common council and the leader (hegemon) decide….” (Inscriptiones Graecae As found in Pomeroy, Burstein, Donlan, and Roberts 2009: 301).

24 The Aftermath of the B. of Chaeronea (338 BCE) Philip undisputed master of Greece. Thebes treated brutally (i.e. Cadmea garrisoned, Political leaders exiled or executed, Prisoners ransomed). Athens treated more deferentially (No ransom for prisoners, No garrison, No exiles or executions etc.); Cult of Philip est; Antipater and Alexander made citizens. All leagues and confederacies dissolved and reconstituted under Macedonian hegemony. Greece finally unified under Macedon and Philip’s Council of Corinth.

25 The Synedrion of Corinth Master-stroke of Greek diplomacy. Master-stroke of Greek diplomacy. Two stated aims: 1. To unify the Greeks in peace. 2. To avenge the crimes of the Persians! Two stated aims: 1. To unify the Greeks in peace. 2. To avenge the crimes of the Persians! Included all Greek states represented except Sparta. Included all Greek states represented except Sparta. Council met in Corinth; representatives from each member polis. Council met in Corinth; representatives from each member polis. The role of the Synedrion: 1. Pass decrees binding on all member states. 2. Arbitrate disputes between poleis. 3. Try any accused of treason or breach of the treaty. 4. Oath of mutual non-aggression. The role of the Synedrion: 1. Pass decrees binding on all member states. 2. Arbitrate disputes between poleis. 3. Try any accused of treason or breach of the treaty. 4. Oath of mutual non-aggression. Council deliberated; Philip as hegemon. Council deliberated; Philip as hegemon.

26 Events from 338 BCE to 336 BCE 338 BCE – King of Persia (Artaxerxes III) assassinated; perfect opportunity for Macedon (i.e. Greece needs unity, Persia in disarray). 338 BCE – King of Persia (Artaxerxes III) assassinated; perfect opportunity for Macedon (i.e. Greece needs unity, Persia in disarray) BCE - Philip II prepares for invasion of Persia BCE - Philip II prepares for invasion of Persia. 336 BCE - Generals Parmenio, Amyntas, and Attalus cross to Asia Minor (Spring, 336 BCE) and secure a beachhead; Greek cities in Asia Minor begin to revolt (i.e. Go over to Macedon). 336 BCE - Generals Parmenio, Amyntas, and Attalus cross to Asia Minor (Spring, 336 BCE) and secure a beachhead; Greek cities in Asia Minor begin to revolt (i.e. Go over to Macedon). 336 BCE (Summer) – Philip II assassinated by Pausanias (member of Philip’s bodyguard); succeeded by his son, Alexander the Great (b. 356 BCE). 336 BCE (Summer) – Philip II assassinated by Pausanias (member of Philip’s bodyguard); succeeded by his son, Alexander the Great (b. 356 BCE).

27 An Assessment of Philip II Clearly motivated by personal ambition; careful not to idealize. Welcomed by many of the middle and smaller powers. Careful to respect constitutions (probably out of political expediency). Watershed moment; political, social, cultural landscape of Greece irrevocably changed.


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