Presentation on theme: "Eleanor of Aquitaine 1122 CE – 1204 CE By: Stephanie Scott."— Presentation transcript:
Eleanor of Aquitaine 1122 CE – 1204 CE By: Stephanie Scott
Location Eleanor was from the province of Aquitaine in France. Since her father had no male heirs she was named the heir and she gained all of her fathers land, which is why she married the king. After her divorce from King Louis VII of France she moved to England to marry her second husband, King Henry II of England, who also wanted her for the land she owned. Highlighted are Aquitaine, England and the location of the crusades. Eleanor accompanied King Louis VII to the Second Crusade and her son, Richard the Lionhearted to the Third Crusade Province of Aquitaine in France. Land Eleanor owned after becoming heir.
History – The High Middle Ages Eleanor of Aquitaine lived during the times of the High Middle ages. During this time period the Carolingian empire had been divided by Charlemagnes grandsons. This was also the time of the second, third and fourth crusades. Eleanor was at both the second and third crusades, a large feat for a women of her time period. Agriculture during the High Middle Ages due to the warm climate and 3-field system of farming which decreased famine significantly in Europe. Knight cavalry was also at a high during this time period because it was a time of heavy battle due to the crusades and land disputes. Catholicism and Christianity were the main religions during Eleanors life, which was beneficial to women as they were allowed to participate as nuns. Womens lives were overall fairly good during these times as they were allowed to participate in daily rituals, allowed to go out in public and allowed to be land holders when their husbands were away. Although they were not equal to men, they were much more fortunate than a lot of women of their era. During her lifetime the re-establishment of the Bulgarian empire was formed and Fredrick I of Barbarossa was crowned king of the Holy Roman empire.
History – Early Life Eleanor was the oldest child of William X, Duke of Aquitaine and Aenor de Châtellerault. Eleanor had a very good education due to her fathers high standing and persistence. Her native tongue was Poitevin but she was taught to speak fluent Latin. Music, literature, horseback riding, hawking and hunting were also some of Eleanors strong points. Since her only brother died at age 4 she was named the heir to her fathers domains. Since Aquitaine was the riches, largest province in medieval France, Eleanor was a very high standing Duchess. Eleanor and her younger sister Petronilla were sent to Bordeaux while their father set out for the Shrine of Saint James of Compostela, he died while on his journey. At age fifteen she became duchess of Aquitaine and the most eligible heiress in all of Europe. Before his death her father gave her rights to King Louis VI of France so he could protect her from kidnappers and find her a suitable husband. Louis VI, faced with death through illness, decided to bring Eleanor under the French Crown by marrying his son and heir Louis VII.
History – King Louis VII of France In 1137 CE Eleanor of Aquitaine became married to King Louis VII of France. During this time Eleanor was crowned as Queen of the Franks after her husband became sole monarch. She was often criticized by the church for misbehavior and un-orderly conduct but her husband was so in love with her he often overlooked this behavior and focused on her good traits and trying to meet her needs.
History – The Second Crusade Eleanor insisted in taking part in the crusades by being the feudal leader of the soldiers from her duchy. Her involvement and female recruitment greatly emphasized the role of women in society, which caused women rights to increase during her time. After the return of the defeated Germans Eleanor and her husband made their way to the crossing of Mount Cadmos where they were seized by Turks. Their crusade was greatly unsuccessful but it gave them a better understanding of what they were up against.
History – King Henry II of England After her divorce from her first husband she was almost kidnapped due to the fact that she was a wealthy eligible duchess. After this she asked Henry to marry her so she would no longer have the threat of being kidnapped. She became the Duchess of the Normans and the Countess of Angevins and her husband became Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers. After Henry became king she became Queen of England by Archbishop of Canterbury. Henry and Eleanors marriage was by no means faithful as they both had other lovers during their time together.
History – The Third Crusade After marrying Henry and bearing his children she became very tied to her son, Richard the Lionhearted. After Richard had made the decision to go on the Third Crusade Eleanor told him he would go to Jerusalem with him. This crusade was also a large failure as they saw the Fall of Jerusalem. Although they were not successful Eleanor became much closer to her son Richard and he quickly became her favorite child.
History – Revolt Against Henry II In 1173 Eleanors son Henry launched a two year revolt against his father. The younger Henry convinced his mother and his two siblings Richard and Geoffrey to accompany him in the revolt. After they went to Paris, where Henry II was staying, Eleanor convinced the kings of the south to join the revolt. On the way to Paris Eleanor was captured and taken to the king of Rouen. After taking Eleanor to England they imprisoned her in a large castle there where she stayed until 1189.
History – Eleanor’s Imprisonment Eleanor was imprisoned in various locations through out Europe for sixteen years (1173-1189). During her time in prison her husband Henry fell in love with one of his mistresses named Rosamund. He flaunted her around to Eleanor in attempts to get her to agree to annulment. However if she would have done this he would have revoked her titles and gained almost all of her land which she knew. Eleanor did not seek annulment and kept her titles and land, making Henry more furious with her. It is rumored that Eleanor poisoned Rosamund in attempts to infuriate Henry II. Young Henry tried once again to revolt against his father but he was attacked by troops and eventually died of disease. Eleanor was eventually sent to Normandy where she gained some freedom and sometimes traveled with her husband but she was still in custody and was not released until Henry’s death in 1189. After his death Eleanor created more freedom in Normandy and England for the people of her lands.
History – Impacts on Society Eleanor of Aquitaine impacted society greatly due to her improvement of womens rights. She created the Courts of Love in Aquitaine that were for women so that they were encouraged to have a mind of their own. She also created the courts to advertise that women did not need men in their lives and it was okay to be strong, independent women. She promoted troubadours who were singing poets and encouraged authors to write books which affected the arts. Her jury system in the Courts of Love also affected the Jury system of England and was implemented after King Henry II death. Overall Eleanor of Aquitaine was probably the most famous women’s activist of her time.
Appearance Eleanor of Aquitaine was portrayed as being one of the most beautiful women of her time, which is one of the reasons why her husbands both fell in love with her.
History - Politics Eleanor was very interested in the politics of running England. She often gave her ideas to King Henry II and when he was away at war or visiting other lands of England she was put in charge of the royal seal. This would involve making state decisions, protecting the royal treasury, collecting taxes, and approving spending. After Richard became King she continued with her political advice and was very involved in his court. In addition, she oversaw aspects of Aquitaine management.
History - Offspring Louis VII of France (First Husband) Louis VII of France (First Husband) Marie, Countess of Champagne (1145-1198) Alix, Countess of Blois (1151-1198) Henry II of England (Second Husband) Henry II of England (Second Husband) William XI, Count of Poitiers (1153-1156) Henry the Young King (1155-1183) Matilda, Duchess of Saxony (1156-1189) Richard I of England (1157-1199) Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany (1158-1186) Eleanor, Queen of Castile (1162-1214) Joan, Queen of Sicily (1165-1199) John of England (1167-1216)
Conclusion Eleanor of Aquitaine lived to be 82 years old. The average age for women in the Middle Ages was around 30-40, many women died young due to childbirth. Only two of her ten children survived her time. It’s a testament to her tenacity and her ability to adapt to any situation that gave her such a long lived, illustrious life.
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