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Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe

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1 Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe
Section 2 Feudalism and the Manor Economy

2 The Emergence of Feudalism
Feudalism: a new political & social system that governed medieval life Loosely organized system of rule --- powerful lords divided land among lesser lords (vassals) In return: vassals pledged loyalty and service to greater lords Feudal contract: exchange of pledges between lord and vassal established by custom/tradition Unwritten Blade of grass or handful of earth was symbolic of a binding contract

3 Feudal contract: obligations of an upper lord (Duke)
Granted vassal (Earl) a fief – estate/tract of land Peasants & towns/buildings on the land Promise of protection in times of war Guardian to vassal’s children if vassal died during warfare

4 Feudal contract: obligations of a vassal
Pledged loyalty Provided lord with approx. 40 days of military service a year Provided payments (food, goods, etc.) and sometimes advice Payments made during knighthood of a lord’s son or marriage of a lord’s daughter

5 Structured society --- Complex system

6 French Nobility Titles
Duc: possessor of a duchy Marquis: possessor of a marquesate Comte: possessor of a county Vicomte: possessor of a viscounty Baron: possessor of a barony Prince: possessor of a principality Seigneur: title of “sir” followed by name of fief

7 English Titles Duke: comes from Latin Dux or leader
Marquess: comes from French Marquis/form of marche or English borders with Wales and Scotland Earl: from Anglo-Saxon eorl or military leader Viscount: from Latin vicecomes or vice-count Baron: from Germanic baro or freeman Baronet: a lesser baron Knight: from Anglo-Saxon cniht or boy/youth/servant

8 The World of Nobles: Knighthood
_________was a way of life Rival lords battled for power Many boys were trained to be knights (mounted warriors) – began during time of Charlemagne Sent to castle of his father’s lord for strict training (Page-Squire-Knighthood) 1100s: tournaments (mock battles) came into fashion – were dangerous – captured knights often held for ransom

9 Castles Fortified homes built by powerful lords to withstand attack
Protected by high walls, a moat, drawbridges, towers, a keep, etc. Wars often centered on seizing castles.

10 Noblewomen Acted as “lady of the manor” while husband was off fighting
Supervised vassals, managed household, spun wool into thread, performed agricultural & medical tasks Only a few privileged women took a hand in politics or learned to read and write. Feudal system restricted women’s rights to inherit land (passed to eldest son) – women did receive land as part of their dowry, a gift of property or money passed to her husband. Marriages were arranged.

11 Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204) “The Grandmother of Europe”
Married King Louis VII of France at age 15 – had 2 daughters – marriage was annulled Went on the 2nd Crusade Married King Henry II of England – gave birth to 5 sons & 3 daughters Failed in an attempt (with 2 of her sons) to overthrow Henry & spent 15 years in prison Son Richard the Lionheart became King of England & freed her from prison

12 Chivalry Chivalry was a code of conduct adopted by knights
Knights required to be brave and loyal, fight fairly and treat captured knights fairly Troubadours (wandering poets) held women on a pedestal – their love songs praised the beauty, perfection and wit of women

13 In your notebooks! Read Peasants and Manor Life (pgs. 189-190)
In your notebooks explain the responsibilities of a lord and peasant in the manorial system Describe (or sketch) the setup of a typical medieval manor. Briefly describe peasant life on the manor.


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