Presentation on theme: "Do-Now Please quickly copy down the following questions, leaving room for your responses. You will answer these with the information from the lesson and."— Presentation transcript:
Do-Now Please quickly copy down the following questions, leaving room for your responses. You will answer these with the information from the lesson and Ch26.1 at the end of class. Why 1945 was a critical year in U.S. foreign relations? What are some of the postwar goals of the U.S. and the Soviet Union? How do they contrast? How did the “iron curtain” tighten Soviet hold over Eastern Europe? How did the Truman Doctrine complement the policy of containment? Tuesday, May 5 th Agenda Do now & HW check Notes & review: Origins of the Cold War Origins of the Cold WarHomework Explain your responses to the 4 questions provided in the do-now if you don’t complete them in class. VOCABULARY QUIZ TOMORROW (on packet pg1)
(If you don’t finish in class today) HOMEWORK – Due Wednesday 5/6 Thoroughly explain your answers to the following questions based on today’s notes and Ch26.S1. Why 1945 was a critical year in U.S. foreign relations? What are some of the postwar goals of the U.S. and the Soviet Union? How do they contrast? How did the “iron curtain” tighten Soviet hold over Eastern Europe? How did the Truman Doctrine complement the policy of containment?
Historically, what caused tensions between the Soviet Union and its Allies? Bolshevik revolution (1917) Stalin and Hitler’s non-aggression pact Delayed Allied invasion of Western Europe Disagreements on issues at the Yalta Conference
The primary issues discussed at the Yalta Conference EEEEstablishment of an international peacekeeping organization DDDDivision of Germany between allied powers SSSSoviets declaring war on Japan FFFFate of Poland elections or existing government?
Truman Takes Over Truman Takes Over A new era of US – Soviet relations begins when FDR suddenly passes away… “few presidents had been less prepared to become President” Little experience with international affairs Less willing to compromise with the Soviets Scolds & angers Soviet leaders … does this sound familiar?
What 2 issues continued to be debated at the Potsdam Conference? What becomes of Germany Stalin wanted war payments ($20 billion)Stalin wanted war payments ($20 billion) Poland’s government Truman wanted electionsTruman wanted elections Clement Attlee (GB), Harry S. Truman, and Joseph Stalin Guess what word got out at this conference?
How did the U.S. and the Soviet Union differ in their postwar goals? United States Soviet Union Fought to bring democracy Brought economic opportunity Economically strong & politically open world Wanted to rebuild in ways that would protect its own interests Satellite nations Spread of communism Refuse to cooperate with World Bank & International Monetary Fund Supported Communist revolutionists
How did the Soviets tighten control over Eastern Europe? February 1946 – Stalin predicts ultimate Communist takeover, calls on Communist party to spread their system by any means Est. Cominform – an agency to coordinate activities of Communist parties around the worldEst. Cominform – an agency to coordinate activities of Communist parties around the world Just some examples of Soviet-sponsored takeovers: Albania & BulgariaAlbania & Bulgaria CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia Hungary & RomaniaHungary & Romania East GermanyEast Germany Finland & YugoslaviaFinland & Yugoslavia
What did Winston Churchill mean by the “iron curtain?” “Iron curtain” Derived from a 1946 speechDerived from a 1946 speech A division between Western Europe (free) and the Communist nations of Eastern EuropeA division between Western Europe (free) and the Communist nations of Eastern Europe Behind that Iron Curtain : “… certainly not the Liberated Europe we fought to build up. Nor is it one which contains the essentials of permanent peace.”
Differing views in the Cold War The US hoped to see these goals they had fought for in WWII achieved in the postwar world Americans had fought to bring democracy and economic opportunity to the conquered nations of Europe & Asia.Americans had fought to bring democracy and economic opportunity to the conquered nations of Europe & Asia. The Soviets were determined to rebuild in ways that would protect their self-interest by establishing satellite nations to act as buffer zonesby establishing satellite nations to act as buffer zones Soviets also hoped to see Communism spread Refused to work with World Bank, Int. Monetary FundRefused to work with World Bank, Int. Monetary Fund Supported or installed totalitarian Communist Gov’t in Eastern EuropeSupported or installed totalitarian Communist Gov’t in Eastern Europe
Origins of the Cold War Conflicting Views American Policy Led to the Cold War… “By overextending policy and power and refusing to accept Soviet interests, American policy-makers contributed to the Cold War… There is evidence that Soviet policies were reasonably cautious and conservative, and that there was at least a basis for accommodation. But… as American demands for democratic governments in Eastern Europe became more vigorous, as the new Administration delayed in providing economic assistance to Russia and in seeking international control of atomic energy, policy-makers met with increasing Soviet suspicion and antagonism. Concluding that Soviet- American cooperation was impossible, they came to believe that the Soviet state could be halted only by force or the threat of force.”
Origins of the Cold War Conflicting Views Stalin’s Actions Led to the Cold War… “Would there have been a Cold War without Stalin? Perhaps. Nobody in history is indispensable. But Stalin had certain characteristics that set him off from others in authority… he alone pursued personal security by depriving everyone else of it: no Western leader relied on terror to the extent that he did. He alone transformed his country into an extension of himself: no Western leader could have succeeded at such a feat, and none attempted it. He alone saw war and revolution as acceptable means with which to pursue ultimate ends: no Western leader associated violence with progress to the extent that he did. Did Stalin therefore seek a Cold War? The question is a little like asking: ‘Does a fish seek water?’”
US Policy Changes… Soviets had “no real faith in the possibility of permanently happy coexistence of the Socialist and capitalist worlds” and that they also believed in the inevitable triumph of communism. Further, that the S.U. “cannot be easily defeated or discouraged by a single victory on the part of its opponents… but only by intelligent long-range policies.” “The U.S. policy toward the S.U. must be that of a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies.”
What policy did the US embrace after WWII? RRRResulting from an increasing number of Communist governments in Eastern Europe AAAA new U.S. foreign policy: CONTAINMENT Purpose: resist Soviet attempts to spread communism Person: George Kennan Critics: some said it was too moderate or conservative – wanted to push Communism out of Eastern Europe, Russia & anywhere else
What is the Truman Doctrine? It called on the US to take a leadership role in the world E.g. to economically support nations threatened by communismE.g. to economically support nations threatened by communism Truman established this policy when Greece and Turkey come under Communist threat Page 874