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Crime in America Chapter 1 The Study of Crime. Perception of Crime Media 1. Distortion 2. Consequences.

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Presentation on theme: "Crime in America Chapter 1 The Study of Crime. Perception of Crime Media 1. Distortion 2. Consequences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crime in America Chapter 1 The Study of Crime

2 Perception of Crime Media 1. Distortion 2. Consequences

3 Social Scientists Domain of StudyDomain of Study ParametersParameters Norms & ValuesNorms & Values LawsLaws SanctionsSanctions

4 Characteristics of Crime Social HarmSocial Harm DevianceDeviance Criminal IntentCriminal Intent –Mens rea –Mala prohibita –Strict liability –Excuses –Justifications

5 Juvenile Delinquency Adjudicated delinquentAdjudicated delinquent Criminal behaviorCriminal behavior Status offenseStatus offense AdjudicationAdjudication –Filing –Results –In re Gualt Annual ReportAnnual Report

6 Strategies of Criminal Justice Research ComparativeComparative HistoricalHistorical BiographicalBiographical PatternsPatterns –Criminal history –Cohorts study Surveys Experiments Observations Mathematical models Integrated models

7 Crime in America Chapter 2 Measuring Crime

8 Classical Criminology The age of enlightenmentThe age of enlightenment Cesare Beccaria( )Cesare Beccaria( ) Essay on crime and punishmentEssay on crime and punishment Rational thoughtRational thought ConsequencesConsequences Free Will Harm to Society Role of Judges Deterrence

9 Cartography Maps and chartsMaps and charts Crime dataCrime data Emile Durkheim ( )Emile Durkheim ( ) Initial applications Initial conclusions

10 Positivism Elimination of Free willElimination of Free will Scientific neutralityScientific neutrality Crime or CriminalCrime or Criminal Ceasare Lombroso( ) Enrico Ferri( ) Raffaele Garofalo( )

11 Official Crime Statistics Reported CrimeReported Crime Agency ResponsibleAgency Responsible Crime IndexCrime Index –Part I –Part II

12 Part I Index Crimes Crimes against a personCrimes against a person –Murder –Forcible Rape –Aggravated assault –Robbery Crimes against property –Burglary –Grand Theft –Motor Vehicle Theft –Arson

13 Official Crime Reporting Crime ratesCrime rates –Prevalence –Incidence Police responsePolice response –Proactive –Reactive –Clearance Non-reporting –Recording practices –Political atmosphere –Policy implications

14 Victimization Data The Dark Figure of CrimeThe Dark Figure of Crime NCVSNCVS Methodical IssuesMethodical Issues –Source –Size –External Validity –Internal Validity

15 Crime in America Chapter 3 Crime and It’s CostCrime and It’s Cost

16 Types of Crime ConventionalConventional White CollarWhite Collar OrganizedOrganized Victimless Crimes against the person Crimes against property

17 Types of Cost Direct lossDirect loss Transfer of propertyTransfer of property Criminal violence costsCriminal violence costs Illegal expendituresIllegal expenditures Enforcement costsEnforcement costs Prevention & protection costsPrevention & protection costs

18 Distribution of Crime ViolenceViolence PropertyProperty RaceRace GenderGender RelationshipRelationship

19 Specific Crimes MurderMurder Forcible rapeForcible rape RobberyRobbery AssaultAssault BurglaryBurglary Larceny-theftLarceny-theft Motor vehicle theftMotor vehicle theft ArsonArson Fraud Vandalism Organized crime White collar crime Victimless crime –Drug use –Gambling –Prostitution

20 Fear of Crime Economic responseEconomic response Social responseSocial response

21 Crime in America Chapter 4 Dimensions of Crime

22 Cross-National Economic developmentEconomic development –Murder rates –Non-lethal offenses Cultural influences –Heterogenic –Homogenic

23 Regional Variations

24 Variations by Community United StatesUnited States –Size –Density –Economic development Multi-national –Cultural issues –Social process –Economic development

25 Concentric Zone Theory Factory Zone f Zone of Transition Workingmen’s Homes Zone Residential Zone Commuter Zone

26 Ecology of Crime Rodney StarksRodney Starks Urban neighborhoodUrban neighborhood –Deviance –Density –Poverty –Mixed used –Transient –Dilapidation Broken Window SyndromeBroken Window Syndrome

27 Geography of Crime TriadTriad –Location of crime –Residence of offender –Residence of victim White Collar CrimeWhite Collar Crime Dyad –Location of crime –Residence of offender

28 Migration and Crime NationalNational SeasonalSeasonal TypologyTypology –Young –Male –Single –Family ties The American Experience Thomas Sellin Culture Conflict & Crime Inter- generational

29 Seasonal Variations in Crime WinterWinter SpringSpring SummerSummer FallFall

30 Annual Variations in Crime Uniform Crime ReportUniform Crime Report National Crime Victimization Survey

31 Gender Variation OffenderOffender –Adult –Juvenile Victim –Adult –Juvenile

32 Crime in America Chapter 5 Biological & Psychological Explanation

33 Early Scientific Contributions PhysiognomiesPhysiognomiesPhrenologists

34 Response to Lombroso Charles GoringCharles Goring –The English Convict –Methodology –Conclusion Earnest Hooton –American Anthropologist –Influences –Organic status –Conclusion

35 Father of Criminology Father of Criminology Ceasare LombrosoCeasare Lombroso AtavismAtavism –Born criminal –Out of time –Physical characteristics

36 Response to Lombroso Charles GoringCharles Goring –The English Convict –Challenged methodology –Conclusion Earnest Hooton –American anthropologist –Influences –Organic status –Conclusion

37 Somatotyes William SheldonWilliam Sheldon –Integrated theory –Biological & Psychological EndomorphsEndomorphs EctomorphsEctomorphs MesomorphsMesomorphs –Juvenile application

38 Biological Research on Crime Variables of vulnerabilitiesVariables of vulnerabilities Twin studiesTwin studies –Identical –Fraternal –Concordance rate Nature vs. NurtureNature vs. Nurture

39 Additional Biological Theories XYY ChromosomeXYY Chromosome –Super-male Gender distinctionsGender distinctions –Cultural influences Premenstrual syndromePremenstrual syndrome –Aggression—Violence –“The chicken or the egg ?” Biochemical factorsBiochemical factors Learning disabilitiesLearning disabilities –ADHD

40 Contemporary Applications of Biological Theories Volumes of researchVolumes of research Political applicationPolitical application Social challengesSocial challenges Environmental influencesEnvironmental influences General applicationGeneral application

41 Psychological Explanation of Crime Intelligence and CrimeIntelligence and Crime –Standardize testing –Comparative analysis –Intelligence and class structure –Policy and social implications

42 Personality and Crime Criminal personalityCriminal personality TypologyTypology Thought patternsThought patterns Situational responseSituational response Clinical applicationClinical application

43 Self-Discipline & Crime Social controlsSocial controls Self-controlSelf-control Instigation to aggressionInstigation to aggression Contextual effectContextual effect Simplistic psychosociallySimplistic psychosocially ConsequencesConsequences

44 Aggressiveness & Crime Habit strengthHabit strength Inhibitors against aggressionInhibitors against aggression Stimulus factorsStimulus factors CompetitionCompetition

45 Specific Criminal Personalities Homicidal ChildrenHomicidal Children –Typology –Influences RapistsRapists –Exploitative –Compensatory –Displace anger –Sadistic

46 Personality Inventories MMPIMMPI Psychopathic deviate scalePsychopathic deviate scale Schizophrenia scaleSchizophrenia scale Hypomania scaleHypomania scale Justice Model scaleJustice Model scale

47 Specific Mental Disorders Antisocial Personality DisorderAntisocial Personality Disorder –Conduct Disorder –Typology –Clinical application Schizophrenia –Mood Disorder –Propensity for crime –De- institutionaliza- tion

48 Psychology & Criminal Law Insanity StandardInsanity Standard –M’Naughten –Brawner Rule –Substantial Capacity Test –Insanity Defense Reform Act –Guilty But Mentally ill

49 Crime in America Chapter 6 Social Cultural, and Economic Sources of Crime

50 Free Enterprise White Collar CrimeWhite Collar Crime Situational EntrepreneurSituational Entrepreneur Pursuit of profitPursuit of profit CompetitionCompetition Comparative analysisComparative analysis –Capitalistic –Socialist

51 Market Structure Seller concentrationSeller concentration Product differentiationProduct differentiation Trust and CreditTrust and Credit –Obligation –Fraud Corporate CrimeCorporate Crime –Bureaucratic structure –Working conditions –Rational decision making

52 Computer Crime Unauthorized dataUnauthorized data Manipulation of dataManipulation of data File creationFile creation HackingHacking Hardware, software, timeHardware, software, time Support criminal enterprisingSupport criminal enterprising ShavingShaving AccessAccess LogisticsLogistics Electronic transferElectronic transfer

53 Organized Crime Contraband moralityContraband morality ProhibitionProhibition –Volstead Act –Wickersham commission GamblingGambling Loan sharkingLoan sharking Illegal drugsIllegal drugs Bankruptcy and stock fraudBankruptcy and stock fraud Disposal of toxic wasteDisposal of toxic waste ExtortionExtortion Dark EconomyDark Economy

54 Economic Development Labor MarketLabor Market Production expansionProduction expansion UnemploymentUnemployment PovertyPoverty –Actual –Relative –Equity

55 Means to Crime GoalsGoals –Legitimate –Illegitimate MeansMeans –Legitimate –Illegitimate Anomie to StrainAnomie to Strain Durkheim to MertonDurkheim to Merton General Strain TheoryGeneral Strain Theory Modes of Adaptation –Conformity –Innovation –Ritualism –Retreatism –Rebellion

56 Differential Opportunity Focus GroupFocus Group CultureCulture Legitimate chancesLegitimate chances Learning StructureLearning Structure Available resourcesAvailable resources

57 Social Class, Values, & Delinquency Reaction Formation TheoryReaction Formation Theory –Albert Cohen –Available means –Conflicting values Lower-Class Culture TheoryLower-Class Culture Theory –Walter Miller –Focal Concerns Subculture of Violence TheorySubculture of Violence Theory –Marvin Wolfgang & Franco Ferracuti –Values and norms –Expected behavior

58 Crime in America Chapter 7 Social Control and Commitment to the Law

59 The Drift Theory Matza & SykesMatza & Sykes Free WillFree Will ValuesValues Subterranean valuesSubterranean values Selective behaviorSelective behavior Techniques of Neutralization –Denial of responsibility –Denial of injury –Denial of the victim –Condemnation of the condemners –Appeal to higher authorities

60 Techniques of Neutralization-Expanded Additional techniquesAdditional techniques –Defense of necessity –Defense of the ledger –Denial of equal justice –Everyone’s doing it –Claim of entitlement Application of neutralization –Embezzlement –Legitimacy for minorities –Crimes of violence –Delinquency


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