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IINFLUENCING- CHAPTERS 22, 23, & 24 CHAPTER 22. Influencing Function: It is the managing function that focuses on getting the best out of subordinates.

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Presentation on theme: "IINFLUENCING- CHAPTERS 22, 23, & 24 CHAPTER 22. Influencing Function: It is the managing function that focuses on getting the best out of subordinates."— Presentation transcript:


2 Influencing Function: It is the managing function that focuses on getting the best out of subordinates It is a continuous function of the supervisor that covers the day-to-day activities within the department It is intertwined with the other management functions It involves the following activities: - Issuing directives and orders that are reasonable, intelligible, and appropriately worded - Issuing instructions - Issuing assignments - Guiding employees - Overseeing employees - Addressing problems - Developing employees - Building an effective workforce

3 Giving Directives Two basic techniques of Directing: Autocratic or close supervision - Relies on orders and detailed instructions - Little or no authority is delegated - Subordinates are expected to follow instructions and the supervisor is to do the planning and decision making - The supervisor’s way is the only way to get the job done - Theory X management is practiced - Employees lose interest and initiative Consultative or Participative Supervision - The problems at hand must be consistent with the abilities of subordinates - Ensures the subordinates’ cooperation and enthusiasm in carrying out directives - An opportunity for employees to make worthwhile contributions and to gain great satisfaction - Leads to higher motivation and morale, ultimately better job performance

4 Consultative or Participative Supervision Contd. Team management thrives Theory Y is practiced The right of decision making still resides with the supervisor Implies sharing of information between the supervisor and employees Improves communication and understanding between supervisor and subordinates

5 Supervisor’s Role in Managing organizational Change: The supervisor is at the forefront of organizational change and must introduce the change, explain to subordinates, and implement the activities to support the change The supervisor should expect some resistance to change from subordinates The supervisor should involve subordinates in the discussions and decisions about implementing the change The supervisor should give subordinates enough time for feedback and communication about the change

6 Team management Clear communication of the team’s purpose and its authority is required It has the potential to influence the action of others in the department It is sometimes utilized to address departmental issues or as a formal structure to deliver services It broadens the span of supervision It improves the quality of processes and lowers cost

7 CHAPTER 23 Leadership Styles: Theory X (autocratic) - Supervisors hoard information and exercise tight supervision - Supervisors make decisions without input from subordinates - Supervisors assume that people are lazy, incapable of self-control, and are motivated by threat or punishment

8 Theory Y or Democratic - Loose supervision - Authority is delegated - Consults with subordinates in decision- making - People are self-motivated to accomplish tasks - People seek responsibility and exert self- control

9 Theory Z: - Influenced by Japanese practices - Assumes that workers want to build cooperative and intimate working relationships with both subordinates and their bosses - Fosters trust between subordinates and supervisors - Emphasis is place on work teams

10 Free-rein: - It is frequently called laissez-faire leadership - Assumes that people are self-motivated and need little supervision

11 CHAPTER 24 Theories of Motivation: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human needs - It is based on five level of needs: physiological, safety and security, social, esteem, and self- actualization needs Supervisors must be aware of the five level of needs so that subordinates can be motivated accordingly. In addition, efforts should be made to provide a working environment that is conducive in meeting those needs

12 Alderfer’s ERG Model: Based on three categories of needs: - Existence - Relatedness - Growth Individuals regress to a lower need when frustrated in meeting higher needs

13 Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory: Hygiene factors (they can be satisfying or dissatisfying) - Company policy and administration - Supervision - Interpersonal relations - Working conditions - Salary Motivators - Achievement - Recognition - The work itself - Responsibility - Advancement

14 McClelland’s Achievement Theory: Human behavior is based on the following three needs: - Achievement - Affiliation - Power

15 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: Probability that effort will lead to performance Probability of getting a reward for performance Performing the job and getting the reward

16 Skinner’s reinforcement Model: Assumes that behavior can be controlled through rewards Rewards are likely to reinforce positive behavior


18 Morale: There is a direct relationship between morale and productivity, turnover, absenteeism, teamwork, and rate of accidents When morale is high, employees are more likely to work hard to accomplish organizational objectives When morale is low, employees are less likely to accomplish organizational objectives High morale is the result of good motivation, respect and dignity, good leadership, effective communication, and other human resource practices It is the supervisor’s responsibility to promote, develop, and maintain good morale High morale has the tendency to spread and makes employees work days pleasurable and satisfying

19 Factors that influence morale: External (beyond the supervisor’s control) - Family problems - Financial worries - National disasters - Car troubles - Illnesses The supervisor can use the following techniques to assist employees who are affected by the above factors: - nondirective interview - referral to employee assistance programs (EAP) The organization can use the following to assist employees to balance work with life pressures: - offer flexible work hours - shared paid time off - telecommuting opportunities

20 Factors Influencing Morale Contd. Internal factors within the control of the supervisor: - Incentives - Working conditions - Quality of supervision

21 Chapter 26 Discipline: Positive discipline thrives in an organization that promotes sound leadership, efficient management, and positive motivation A direct relationship exist between morale and discipline The best discipline is self-discipline Self-discipline is based on the commitment of employees to comply with organizational rules, regulations, and orders The supervisor must promptly and firmly take proper action when rules, orders, and regulations are violated All disciplinary actions must be done privately Progressive disciplinary actions involve: informal talk, verbal warning, written warning, disciplinary layoff, demotion, discharge, and documentation Five disciplinary approaches: red-hot- stove, immediacy, advance warning, consistency, and impartiality

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