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Chapter 8: Empowerment and Delegation What’s the best way to “hand over the reins”?
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 2 What is Empowerment to You? A Great Western bank manager asks an employee to resolve a difficult customer service problem Saturn workers receive special training in quality that enables them to spot defects and stop production, if necessary, to fix them DEC employees who normally work in departments such as engineering and marketing are also assigned to teams to create products such as minicomputers and microchips
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 3 Empowerment Empowerment enables other people to act: it leaves them feeling strong, capable, and committed “Get work done through other people” Broad participation and accountability Involvement in decision making Flexible response
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 4 Many Employees Today Feel Powerless What I think doesn’t count very much anymore Most people in power will take advantage of people like me The people in charge don’t care what happens to me I’m left out of things going on around me
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 5 The “Dirty Dozen” – Outcomes of Stress Centralization Threat-rigidity response Loss of innovation Decreasing morale Politicized environment Loss of trust Increased conflict Restricted communication Lack of teamwork Loss of loyalty Scapegoating leaders Short-term perspective Adapted from Cameron, et al., 1987
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 6 Power vs. Empowerment Power External source Ultimately, few people have it The capacity to have others do what you want To get more implies taking it away from someone else Leads to competition Empowerment Internal source Ultimately, everyone can have it The capacity to have others do what they want To get more does not affect what others have Leads to cooperation
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 7 Five Core Dimensions of Empowerment Self-efficacy – “I can do my work” Self-determination – “I can figure out what work to do” Personal consequences – “The outcomes of my work matter” Meaningfulness – “My work is important” Trust – “I have the skills and resources I need to do my work”
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 8 Discussion Questions Page 381 of text: “Empowerment is more rarely seen than prescribed.” Is this statement true in your experience? Why or why not? “Managers don’t empower others; they create the circumstances in which others can empower themselves.” How does this statement correspond with your experience?
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 9 Ways to Empower Others Articulate a clear vision and goals Help them to master challenges Model the correct behavior Provide support Arouse positive emotions Provide good information Provide necessary resources Connect to outcomes Be fair, reliable, open, caring, and competent Do you agree? Are things missing?
Relationship Between Dimensions and Prescriptions for Empowerment Self-Efficacy (competence) Self-Determination (choice) Personal Consequence (impact) Trust (security) Meaningfulness (value) Vision and Values Personal Mastery Experiences Model Provide Resources Provide Information Provide Support Emotional Arousal Connect to Outcomes Create Confidence Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 10
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 11 Responsibilities of Empowered Employees Communicating openly Taking ownership of work Continuous learning Having a team orientation
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 12 Delegation Not just handing off work you don’t want to do Things to consider when delegating: qualifications of subordinate necessity of employee commitment expansion of employee capabilities evidence of shared values and perspectives sufficient time for delegation
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 13 Advantages of Delegation Increases manager’s discretionary time Develops subordinate capabilities Demonstrates confidence in delegates Enhances commitment of delegates Improves decision making Increases efficiency Fosters work integration by manager coordination
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 14 Deciding When to Delegate Involve others when: They possess relevant information or skills Acceptance and understanding are important Personal development can result Time is not a crucial factor Conflicts won’t arise Form a team when: Interaction will clarify the problem Interaction will increase motivation Disagreements will lead to better solutions Dysfunctional conflicts won’t arise Time is not a crucial factor
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 15 Deciding When to Delegate Delegate to the team when: The team will perform competently, saving your time Motivation among the team members will increase Sufficient information and talent exist among team members Participate in the team when: No one else could provide leadership to the team The team needs information possessed only by you Your presence will not disrupt the flow of ideas, information, or feelings Your time would be spent productively
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 16 Guidelines for Effective Delegation Be clear about desired ends Delegate completely Allow participation in delegation Establish parity between authority and responsibility Work within the organizational structure
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 17 Guidelines for Effective Delegation (cont.) Provide adequate support Focus accountability on results Delegate consistently Avoid upward delegation Clarify consequences of tasks, especially rewards
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 18 How Would You Handle This Situation? Development and Implementation of Company Policies. A supervisor feels the need to implement or stress an office policy such as prohibiting smoking or enforcing attendance. What is the best way for the supervisor to bring this issue up with employees? What can the supervisor do to increase the likelihood that employees will accept the policy and believe it is fair? How can the supervisor distinguish between policies that have to be followed to the letter and policies where some flexibility is allowed?
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 19 How Would You Handle This Situation? Process vs. Results Orientation. A supervisor gives an employee an assignment such as working on a report. Although the report is not high priority, the supervisor would like to get it off his/her "to do" list. What is the best way for the supervisor to follow up on the employee's progress? How much instruction should the supervisor give on how to prepare the report vs. what the final report should look like? What can the supervisor do to ensure that the report gets done in a timely fashion?
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