Presentation on theme: "A Global View. Humans have always expressed a need to understand natural phenomenon and to answer questions regarding their way of life and what happens."— Presentation transcript:
Humans have always expressed a need to understand natural phenomenon and to answer questions regarding their way of life and what happens once they die These needs resulted in the development of a variety of belief systems and philosophies that can be found throughout the world today Religion can be defined as an organized system of beliefs, ceremonies, practices, worship that centers on one or more gods
Some prehistoric finds suggest that religion of some sort have been a part of mankind since the very beginning Early religions probably reflected human relationship to nature Religions also reflected human need to explain natural phenomena that are not understood – the supernatural Religious belief is often encouraged by rulers who claim the force of supernatural authority
A common factor in religions is the idea that the god or gods have an interest in the behavior of humans and their judgment of it right or wrong From this follows the idea that a deity is to be obeyed, or at least pleased, or retribution will follow Morality is often seen as standards set by the god or gods
Animism (from Latin anima, (soul, life)) is a philosophical, religious or spiritual idea that souls or spirits exist not only in humans but also in other animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena, and geographic features Animism is a belief held in many religions around the world, and is not, as some have stated, a type of religion in itself Animism is a belief that is found in several religions
Religion can be defined as a code of belief or philosophy that often involves the worship of a god or gods Many of the religions of the early civilizations like those of Sumeria, Babylon, and Egypt were polytheistic – involving the worship of many gods and goddesses Each god or goddess had their own mythology and ritual
Monotheism (belief in existence of single deity) gradually developed from ideas that one could consistently worship a single deity while accepting possible existence of other gods Often cities had a patron deity and worship of that god was most important Monotheism guides the modern religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
The Greeks were the first to encourage people to turn their attention from the outside world to the condition of man Philosophy is a system of thought devoted to the examination of ideas such as truth, existence, reality, causality, religion, and freedom Philosophical questions are the foundation of some Asian belief systems that stress order and structure in society or finding harmony in nature
Ethical systems of belief seek to address questions about morality, how moral values should be determined, how a moral outcome can be achieved, and what moral values people actually abide by Though probably not true religions, ethical systems of belief provide much of the same function as religion for many others Confucianism is one of the best-known ethical system
Animism forms a core belief for many of the religions of Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, Australia, and New Zealand Polytheism is best reflected in the ancient religions of Greece and Rome although Hinduism exhibits qualities of polytheism Not all belief systems involve the worship of a deity (Buddhism)
Religion continues to be a dominant force throughout the world, affecting everything from what people wear to how they behave Religion has a significant effect of world history Throughout the centuries, religion has guided the beliefs and actions of millions around the world Religion is a force that brings people together or tears them apart
Although there are thousands of religions around the world, more people are followers of five of these religions than any other We will concentrate on the characteristics of these religions that make these five similar and unique We will also examine the various subgroups within each religion and look at the current state of each
Hinduism Buddhism Judaism Christianity Islam The Big Five
Remember that religious and ethical systems are one of the themes we can use to help in our study of world history We will look at each religion in its historical context and see how religion has shaped world history We’ll begin with Hinduism (one of the oldest religions still practiced) and end with Christianity (the religion of the Roman Empire at the time of its collapse)
World Population: 6.2 billion Look at pages 282-283 in your textbooks What is the percentage of the total population that are members of the listed groups?
Using the map and graph on p.p. 282-283 answer the following questions 1.What religion accounts for the highest percentage of the total population in India? 2.What religion dominates Israel? 3.Latin America, North America, and Europe are dominated by which religion? 4.Which area has the highest percentage of Muslims? 5.Which area of the world has the largest percentage of Buddhists in the world? 6.Why does China have the highest number of “Nonreligious and Other” ?