2Chapter Outline The Nature of Religion Magic Major Types of Religion A Sociological Approach to ReligionOrganization of Religious LifeAspects of American ReligionMajor Religions in the United States
3The Nature of Religion Religion: A system of beliefs, practices, and values shared by a group of people.Defines the sacred.Helps explain life.Offers salvation from the problems of human existence.
4The Elements of Religion All religions contain certain shared elements:Ritual and prayerEmotionBeliefOrganization
5MagicMagic is an active attempt to coerce spirits or to control supernatural forces.Magic is used to manipulate and control matters that seem to be beyond human control and that may involve danger and uncertainty.In most instances, religion serves to unify a group of believers, whereas magic is designed to help the individual who uses it.Mana is a diffuse, nonpersonalized force that acts through anything that lives or moves.
6Four Major Types of Religions Supernaturalism - Postulates the existence of nonpersonalized supernatural forces that can influence human events.Animism - The belief in inanimate, personalized spirits or ghosts of ancestors that actively work to influence human affairs.
7Four Major Types of Religions Theism - The belief in divine beings—gods and goddesses—who shape human affairs.Abstract ideals - Focus on the achievement of personal awareness and a higher state of consciousness through correct ways of thinking and behaving, rather than by manipulating spirits or worshipping gods.
8QuestionIn animistic religions, shamans are able to cure illness because they:use powerful medicines.manipulate the populace to believe in their power.have developed a working knowledge of natural medicines.have a special relationship with the spirits that cause illness.
9Answer: DIn animistic religions, shamans are able to cure illness because they have a special relationship with the spirits that cause illness.
10Major Religions of the World—2000 Number% of TotalChristians1,999,564,00033Roman Catholic1,057,328,00017.5Protestants342,002,0005.6Orthodox215,129,0003.7Anglican79,650,0001.3Unaffiliated Christians111,125,0001.8
11Major Religions of the World—2000 Number% of TotalBaha’7,106,0000.1Buddhists353,794,0006.0Chinese folk-religionists359,982,0005.9Ethnic religionists228,367,0003.8
12Major Religions of the World—2000 Number% of TotalMuslims1,188,243,00019.6Hindus811,336,00013.3Jews14,434,0000.2Sikhs23,258,0000.4Nonreligious768,159,00012.7Atheists150,090,0002.5
13Question What is your current religious affiliation? Protestant CatholicJewishNoneOther
14Polytheism Belief in a number of gods. Each god or goddess usually has particular spheres of influence such as childbirth, rain, or war.There is generally one who is more powerful than the rest and oversees the others’ activities.
15Monotheism Judaism Christianity Islam The belief in the existence of a single god.Three religions are known to be monotheistic:JudaismChristianityIslam
16The Functionalist Perspective Four categories of religious function:Satisfying individual needs.Promoting social cohesion.Providing a worldview.Helping to adapt to society.
17Society, Religion, and the Individual: A Functionalist View
18QuestionDo you believe that the Bible is the actual word of God, to be taken literally word for word?YesNo
19The Conflict Theory Perspective Marx saw religion as a tool the upper classes used to dominate the lower classes.The lower classes were distracted from social change by the promise of happiness through religion.They would receive their reward in heaven, and so had no reason to improve their condition in this world.
20Organization of Religious Life Universal church Includes all the members of a society within one united moral community. Ecclesia A church that shares the same ethical system as the secular society and has come to represent and promote the interest of the society at large.
21Organization of Religious Life Denomination Tends to limit its membership to a particular class, ethnic group, or religious group, or at least to have its leadership positions dominated by members of such a group.Sect A small group that adheres strictly to religious doctrine that often includes unconventional beliefs or forms of worship.
22Millenarian Movements Typically prophesy the end of the world, the destruction of all evil people and their works, and the saving of the just.
23Question Which of the following is not a denomination? Judaism CatholicismLutheranismHinduism
25Question How do sects differ from denominations? Sects are more tolerant of other religious groups.Sects participate less in secular society.They have beliefs that are more conventional.All of these choices are correct.
26Answer: BSects differ from denominations in that they participate less in secular society.
27American Religiosity People in the United States Are: Too Religious Not Religious EnoughUnited States2158France6126Netherlands5725Great Britain3928Germany31Canada3538
28American Religiosity People in the United States Are: Too Religious Not Religious EnoughIndia3257Spain3140Russia2738Poland656Jordan*95
29Question How important would you say religion is in your own life? Very importantFairly importantNot very importantNo opinion
30Percentage Who Believe In American BelieversCategoryPercentage Who Believe InGod92%Heaven85Miracles82Angels78Hell74The Devil71Ghosts34Witches24