Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 14 Education and Religion"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 14 Education and Religion Section 1: The Sociology of EducationSection 2: The Sociology of Religion
2 Section 1: The Sociology of Education Comparing Functionalist, Conflict, and Interactionist Perspectives of EducationFunctionalist – schools help maintain the stability and smooth operation of society.Teaching Knowledge & SkillsTransmission of CultureSocial IntegrationOccupational Placement
3 Conflict PerspectiveThe educational system serves to limit the potential of certain people and groups to gain power and social rewards. Factors as evidence of this: Social Control- control serves to produce unquestioning citizens who accept the basic inequalities of the social system. Most people are unaware of this. Hidden Curriculum-transmission by schools of cultural goals that are not openly acknowledged. Tracking-assignment of students to different types of educational programs. Socioeconomic Status- Different expectations of children of lower and higher economic status.
4 Interactionists Self-fulfilling Prophecy Students’ educational achievements and success are shaped in part by teacher-student interactions.
5 Current Issues in American Education Section 1: The Sociology of EducationCurrent Issues in American EducationEducational Reform – to address a decline in the level of the quality of education; has led to some improvements.Educational Alternatives – provides school choice through vouchers, charter schools, and options such as homeschooling.
6 Current Issues in American Education Section 1: The Sociology of EducationCurrent Issues in American EducationViolence in the Schools – has led to the use of security measures; zero tolerance policies, and conflict-resolution programs.BullyingBilingual Education – controversial, particularly in states with many Hispanics; has led to “English Only” movement.
7 Religion- a system of roles and norms that is organized around the sacred realm and that binds people together in social groups.Social Cohesion – strengthening of bonds among people.Social Control – encourages conformity to the norms of society.Emotional Support – to provide emotional support during difficult times.
8 Basic Elements of all Religions Rituals- An established pattern of behavior through which a group of believers experience the sacred.They unite believers and reinforce faith.Examples: baptisms, birth, marriage, death.Belief Systems- There are 3 types of belief systems:
9 Animism- Belief that spirits actively influence human life Animism- Belief that spirits actively influence human life. These spirits are seen as supernatural forces that can be used to human advantage.Shamanism-Spirits communicate with only one person in the group. This person (shaman) communicates with the spirits by speaking to them or making their soul leave their body.Totemism- Belief in kinship between humans and animals or natural objects.
10 2. Theism- the belief in a god or gods. Monotheism- the belief in one G-d. Judaism, Christianity and Islam.Polytheism- the belief in a number of Gods. Hinduism.3. Ethicalism- the belief that moral principles have a sacred quality. (truth, honesty, honor.) Buddhism, Confucianism and Shintoism.
11 Organizational Structures- 4 Types Ecclesoa- religious organization in which all people in society are members by virtue of their birth. It’s a state church and is closely allied with the government. They do not tolerate religious differences and they often make membership a matter of law.Example: Fundamentalist Islam.Denomination- a well established organization in which a substantial number of the population are members. Examples: Presbyterian Church and the Baptist Church.Sect- a relatively small religious organization that typically has split off from a denomination because of differences concerning beliefs.Examples: Jehovah’s Witnesses, Hassidic Jews.Cult- a new religion whose beliefs and practices differ markedly from those of society’s major religions. Cults are typically led by charismatic figures. Most cults are short lived.
12 Religion in American Society Section 2: The Sociology of ReligionReligion in American SocietyFree from persecutionCulturally diverseHighly valued but may be losing influenceSeparation of church and stateMany believe in God but fewer are affiliated with religious organizations and even fewer attend services
13 Religion in American Society Section 2: The Sociology of ReligionReligion in American Society(continued)Most Americans are monotheistic.Protestants are most numerous, but the Roman Catholic Church is the largest single organization.Rising participation in fundamentalist and evangelical Christian groups.