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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 14 Education and Religion Section 1: The Sociology of Education Section.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 14 Education and Religion Section 1: The Sociology of Education Section."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 14 Education and Religion Section 1: The Sociology of Education Section 2: The Sociology of Religion

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Comparing Functionalist, Conflict, and Interactionist Perspectives of Education  Functionalist – schools help maintain the stability and smooth operation of society. Teaching Knowledge & Skills Teaching Knowledge & Skills Transmission of Culture Transmission of Culture Social Integration Social Integration Occupational Placement Occupational Placement Section 1: The Sociology of Education

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Conflict Perspective The educational system serves to limit the potential of certain people and groups to gain power and social rewards. Factors as evidence of this: Social Control- control serves to produce unquestioning citizens who accept the basic inequalities of the social system. Most people are unaware of this. Hidden Curriculum-transmission by schools of cultural goals that are not openly acknowledged. Tracking-assignment of students to different types of educational programs. Socioeconomic Status- Different expectations of children of lower and higher economic status. 3

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 Interactionists Self-fulfilling Prophecy Students’ educational achievements and success are shaped in part by teacher- student interactions.

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 Current Issues in American Education  Educational Reform – to address a decline in the level of the quality of education; has led to some improvements.  Educational Alternatives – provides school choice through vouchers, charter schools, and options such as homeschooling. Section 1: The Sociology of Education

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Current Issues in American Education  Violence in the Schools – has led to the use of security measures; zero tolerance policies, and conflict-resolution programs. Violence in the Schools Violence in the Schools  Bullying  Bilingual Education – controversial, particularly in states with many Hispanics; has led to “English Only” movement. Bilingual Education Bilingual Education Section 1: The Sociology of Education

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Religion- a system of roles and norms that is organized around the sacred realm and that binds people together in social groups. Religion- a system of roles and norms that is organized around the sacred realm and that binds people together in social groups.  Social Cohesion – strengthening of bonds among people.  Social Control – encourages conformity to the norms of society.  Emotional Support – to provide emotional support during difficult times.

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Basic Elements of all Religions Rituals- An established pattern of behavior through which a group of believers experience the sacred. They unite believers and reinforce faith. Examples: baptisms, birth, marriage, death. Belief Systems- There are 3 types of belief systems:

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 1.Animism- Belief that spirits actively influence human life. These spirits are seen as supernatural forces that can be used to human advantage.  Shamanism-Spirits communicate with only one person in the group. This person (shaman) communicates with the spirits by speaking to them or making their soul leave their body.  Totemism- Belief in kinship between humans and animals or natural objects.

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Theism- the belief in a god or gods.  Monotheism- the belief in one G-d. Judaism, Christianity and Islam.  Polytheism- the belief in a number of Gods. Hinduism. 3. Ethicalism- the belief that moral principles have a sacred quality. (truth, honesty, honor.) Buddhism, Confucianism and Shintoism.

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Organizational Structures- 4 Types Ecclesoa- religious organization in which all people in society are members by virtue of their birth. It’s a state church and is closely allied with the government. They do not tolerate religious differences and they often make membership a matter of law. Example: Fundamentalist Islam. Denomination- a well established organization in which a substantial number of the population are members. Examples: Presbyterian Church and the Baptist Church. Sect- a relatively small religious organization that typically has split off from a denomination because of differences concerning beliefs. Examples: Jehovah’s Witnesses, Hassidic Jews. Cult- a new religion whose beliefs and practices differ markedly from those of society’s major religions. Cults are typically led by charismatic figures. Most cults are short lived.

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Religion in American Society  Free from persecution  Culturally diverse  Highly valued but may be losing influence  Separation of church and state  Many believe in God but fewer are affiliated with religious organizations and even fewer attend services Section 2: The Sociology of Religion

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 Religion in American Society  Most Americans are monotheistic.  Protestants are most numerous, but the Roman Catholic Church is the largest single organization.  Rising participation in fundamentalist and evangelical Christian groups. Section 2: The Sociology of Religion (continued)


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