3 Overview Part I Background (Genre/form in general, status of projects) Overview (The new music vocabularies, faceting, highlights)Part IIBest practices (LCMPT and LCGFT)Break!Part IIIExamplesExercisesPart IVGenres and library systemsExisting subject headingsLCMPT and RDAProcedures for submitting new terms
5 Background and Overview Janis L. YoungPolicy and Standards DivisionLibrary of Congress
6 Examples Score of The Four Seasons Recording of The Four Seasons Concertos; ScoresBook about The Four Seasons
7 Genre or Form?Genre: a category of works that is characterized by a similar plot, theme, setting, situation, or charactersAdventureDetective and mysteryWesternForm: a category of works with a particular format or purposeEncyclopediaPoetrySuite
8 Genres and Forms in LCSH LCSH has always included genres and formsForm headingsConstitutionsSymphoniesTopographic mapsWaltzesWar filmsForm subdivisions$v Biography$v Exhibitions$v Fake books$v Maps$v Scores and parts
9 Genres and Forms in LCSH Computer cannot distinguish between form and topical headingsCoding is identical (650 field)Form headings can often be used as topicsWe expect users to distinguish between works of a genre or form and works about it
10 Genres and Forms in LCSH ExamplesOld time musicProverbsSpanish language—DictionariesSpanish language—LexicographyWaltzesWaltz—History and criticism—History and criticism
11 LCGFTLibrary of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival MaterialsCoded in a dedicated MARC field (655)Allows computers to distinguish between a topic and a genre/formNew interfaces are able to provide specialized limits and searchesResult sets match the users’ needs
13 Music Genre/Form Project Collaboration between the Library of Congress and MLA’s Bibliographic Control Committee, Form/Genre Task ForceTask Force formed in 2009567 proposals approved on February 13, 2015
14 Mediums of Performance Some LCSH form headings consist of, or include, musical mediums of performanceSuites (Bassoon, clarinet, flute, horn, oboe with string orchestra)Operas—Vocal scores with continuoBassoon, clarinet, trumpet with orchestraViolin and cello music
15 Mediums of Performance LCMPT: Library of Congress Medium of Performance Thesaurus for MusicCollaboration between LC and BCC’s Subject Access SubcommitteeOver 800 terms were approved in February 2014
16 Mediums of Performance LCMPT: Library of Congress Medium of Performance Thesaurus for MusicCoded in 382 field of bibliographic and authority recordsPrincipal goal is access, but may also be used for RDA medium of performance element
17 Demographic GroupsSome LCSH form headings include characteristics of the creator or of the intended audienceArabic language—Textbooks for foreign speakers—EnglishChildren’s songsPrisoners’ writingsShort stories, American
18 Demographic Groups LCDGT: Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms MARC coding385 field: audience characteristics386 field: creator/contributor characteristicsUndertaken by PSD with assistance of the ALA/CaMMS Subject Access CommitteeSmall pilot vocabulary available in early summer 2015
19 Demographic Groups LCDGT: Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms To be assignedWhen the audience is clearly statedWhen the creator or contributor self-identifiesA German textbook for English speakersAn American composer
21 Facets Merriam-Webster online dictionary Facet: def. 2: Any of the definable aspects that make up a subject (as of contemplation) or an object (as of consideration)Synonyms: angle, aspect, hand, phase, side
22 Facets Simplify discovery Commercial web sites have been using it for yearsAllow users to “drill through” individual facets to limit their searchesIndividual facets can be searched and also used as search limits
23 Facets Each vocabulary describes a distinct aspect of a work Coding each aspect separately allows for more flexibility and precision in searching
24 FacetsExample:A collection of short stories about vampires written for teenagers by a French womanAudience: TeenagersCreator: French people; WomenGenres/forms: Paranormal fiction; Short storiesSubject: Vampires
25 Facets Each vocabulary is faceted An authorized term represents one aspectTerms do not overlap in meaningConcerto scoresScores for concertosConcertosScores
26 Faceting Each vocabulary is faceted Coding LCGFT: repeated field 655 LCMPT: repeated subfields in field 382Subfield $a: medium of performanceSubfield $b: soloistSubfield $d: doubling instrumentSubfield $p: alternative medium of performanceLCDGT: repeated $a in fields 385, 386
27 Faceting 100 1# $a Vivaldi, Antonio, $d 1678-1741. $a Cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione. $k Selections; $o arranged$a The seasons / $c Antonio Vivaldi ; arranged for concertante harpsichord, transverse flute and viola da gamba by Joseph Kimbel.300 ## $a 1 score (iii, 66 pages) ; $c 23 x 31 cm + $a 2 parts ; $c 31 cm650 #0 $a Trios (Harpsichord, flute, viola da gamba), Arranged $v Scores and parts.
28 Faceting 100 1# $a Vivaldi, Antonio, $d 1678-1741. $a Cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione. $k Selections$a The seasons / $c Antonio Vivaldi ; arranged for concertante harpsichord, transverse flute and viola da gamba by Joseph Kimbel.300 ## $a 1 score (iii, 66 pages) ; $c 23 x 31 cm + $a 2 parts ; $c 31 cm$a harpsichord $n 1 $a flute $n 1 $a viola de gamba $n 1 $s 3 $2 lcmpt655 #7 $a Concertos. $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Arrangements (Music) $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Scores. $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Parts (Music) $2 lcgft
29 Faceting 100 1# $a Vivaldi, Antonio, $d 1678-1741. $a Cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione. $k Selections$a The seasons / $c Antonio Vivaldi ; arranged for concertante harpsichord, transverse flute and viola da gamba by Joseph Kimbel.300 ## $a 1 score (iii, 66 pages) ; $c 23 x 31 cm + $a 2 parts ; $c 31 cm$a harpsichord $n 1 $a flute $n 1 $a viola de gamba $n 1 $s 3 $2 lcmpt386 ## $a Italians $a Men $2 lcdgt655 #7 $a Concertos. $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Arrangements (Music) $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Scores. $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Parts (Music) $2 lcgft
30 Status of Music Projects Music genre/form termsStill negotiating approximately a hundred proposed termsTerms will appear on monthly Tentative ListsPSD is not accepting proposals for new or revised terms at this timeAnnouncement of LC implementation is forthcomingMedium of performance termsAccepting proposals through the SACO Music FunnelLC implemented in spring 2014
31 Impact on LCSH No immediate impact All form headings and form subdivisions remain validApplicationNon-musical works: continue to assign subject headings as always, in addition to terms from LCGFTMusical works: begin to assign LCMPT and LCGFT if appropriate; may continue to assign LCSH form headings for now
32 Impact on LCSH Future plans Existing bibliographic records will be updatedMusic form headings not used for works about music will be cancelledMusic form subdivisions will be cancelled if used only with a form heading
33 Availability of Records LCGFTClassification WebFree PDF:LC’s authorities website:LC’s Linked Data Service:LC’s MARC Distribution Service Subject- Authorities product
34 Availability of Records LCMPTClassification WebFree PDF:LC’s Linked Data Service:LCMPT free downloads page:
35 The New Music Vocabularies Beth IsemingerHarvard University
36 History and Groups Library of Congress Music Library Association BCC Genre/Form Task ForceMusic Library Association BCC Subject Access SubcommitteeBegan working with Gerry Ostrove from PSDGenre TF 2009, membershipSubjects 2011, Hermine chair
37 Definitions Used by the Task Force GenreA class, type, or category, sanctioned by conventionFormThe constructive or organizing element in musicMedium of performanceThe voices, instruments, and other entities necessary to perform a pieceIncludes instruments, instrumental ensembles, vocal types and ranges, vocal ensembles, mixed ensembles, and objects used as instruments
38 Early Process Review existing LCSH terms and add any missing terms Add new terms from reference sourcesNew Grove 2nd editionGarland Encyclopedia of World Music
39 Sources Used by the Task Force Including IAML code list, Oxford Companion to musical instruments, RILM thesaurus, Allmusic
40 Examples of Terms Found Outside of LCSH from the wiki
41 Lots of Terms!Using these sources resulted in huge lists of terms, especially for world music genres and instrumentsThe project scope was therefore narrowed to include only LCSH terms, with a few exceptionsLong lists might be useful for different project at some point
42 Decisions MadeTo separate genre/form and medium facets when they were combined in one LCSH headingTo simplify the syntax for medium terms by eliminating the word “music”“violin” not “Violin music”No phrases like “X music” “Violin music” just “violin”
43 Separating FacetsMove from pre-coordinated strings to post-coordinated facetsMedium indexed separately, not as part of a stringviolin 1 / piano 1Sonatas (Violin and piano)Other facets also separated – language, geography, nationalityPost-coordinating these facets offers granularityNecessary in linked data environmentALA Subcommittee on Genre Form Implementation working on vocabs for facets, and on MARC, systems issues
44 Facets for Music Genre Bluegrass music / Musique concrète Form Dastgāhs / Motets / SymphoniesMedium of performanceSoprano voice / Viola / ZitherFormatVocal scoresAssociated place/GeographyKenya / Florence, Italy / Middle WestDate of work/Time period1824Numeric designationop. 125KeyD minorLanguageFrenchAudienceChildren’s songsSubjectJohn Henry (Legendary character)
45 Facets for Creators Class of persons Music by gay composers Ethnicity of the creatorMusic by African American composersGender of the creatorMusic by women composersNationality of the creatorMusic by French composers
46 Using FacetsSimpler to identify individual facets; easier for trainingEx. vocal score of a song for soprano and orchestraIdentify medium = soprano with pianoIdentify genre = song ; arrangementIdentify format = vocal scoreAssign faceted terms:1 soprano, 1 piano, Songs, Arrangements (Music), Vocal scoresVersus the string: “Songs (High voice) with orchestra $v Vocal scores with piano”
52 Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms (LCGFT) LCGFT has been around for a while, but the music terms were just added … last week!567 terms in the first release, with some more in the pipeline.
53 LCGFT Hierarchy – Top Terms MusicAccompaniments (Music)Arrangements (Music)Art music ChantsDramatic musicFolk musicFunctional musicGlitch musicHumorous musicMedleys (Music)Notated musicPopular musicSacred musicSongsSound artTeaching pieces (Music)World musicTerms in gray have not yet been added to the vocabulary, but are either scheduled for release or still under discussion. The addition of Art music was a bit contentious, but “Music” really meant two things in LCSH; general music and art music. We wanted to make those two more explicit. We tried to work mostly within the three groups of Art, Folk, and Popular. But, for example, songs and dramatic music can be art, folk, or popular, so they become one of the broadest terms under Music.Functional music is genres and forms initially created for specific purposes—dances, rituals, etc.A few top terms ended up here because they didn’t fit in anywhere else—Glitch music, Humorous music, Sound art.We’re still trying to figure out what World music is, but it seems to be a useful descriptor for some music.
54 LCGFT – Art music Art music Aʼak Aleatory musicAnthemsBallades (Instrumental music)BarcarolesCadenzasCanons (Music)CantatasCarnatic musicChamber musicChinese operasChorale preludesConcert etudesConcertosDastgāhsDialogues (Music)FanfaresFinales (Music)FuguesGagakuHát ả đàoHát bộiHeike biwaHindustani music Honkyoku Interludes Kacapi-suling Malhūn Ma'lūf Maqāmāt (Iraqi music) Microtonal music Minimal music Monologues (Music) Musique concrète Nhạ̣c tài tứ Nō music Oratorios Organ masses Overtures Partimenti Pastoral music Phlēng thao Preludes (Music) Program musicQuodlibetsRagasRhapsodies (Music)Romances (Music)RondosScherzosSicilianas (Music)SonatasSong cyclesSongs without words (Instrumental music)Soundscapes (Music)Spectral musicStochastic musicSuitesSymphoniesTaech’wit’aText-sound compositionsThird stream (Music)ToccatasVariations (Music)Vọng cốDelving a little deeper into a few of the hierarchies. Obviously Art music has a lot of narrower terms, including some very common ones we’re all familiar with like Concertos, Sonatas, and Symphonies.
55 LCGFT – Dramatic music Dramatic music Ballad operas Ballets (Music)BangsawanBarong (Music)Ch’anggŭkChinese operasCongadas (Music)Dialogues (Music)Entremés (Music)Hát bộiHát chèo (Music)Hira gasyIncidental musicKatarimonoKecak (Music)Liturgical dramas (Music)Madrigal comediesMasques (Music) Melodramas Modern dance music Monologues (Music) Motion picture music Musical theater Musicals Nāḍagam Operas Oratorios P’ansori Pantomimes (Music) Rappresentazioni sacre (Music) Revues Serenatas Wayang musicDramatic music has a lot of gray terms, mostly because many of these are performing arts that overlap with other subject areas; they will eventually be addressed.
56 LCGFT – Folk music Folk music Aleke Blues (Music) Cajun musicCalpyso (Music)Celtic musicCongadas (Music)Flamenco musicFolk dance musicFolk-rock musicFolk songsGaitas (Venezuelan music)GuaguancósHát chèoHuaylas (Music)HuaynosIsicathamiyaKlezmer musicKolos (Music)KuyisMaloya (Music)MandóMariachi (Music) Morris dances (Music) Mouth music Música sertaneja Nāḍagam Norteño (Music) Old-time music Palos (Music) P’ansori Plenas Polkabilly music Rebetika Sanjo Schrammelmusik Soca (Music) Sones Soukous (Music) Square dance music Tejano music Vallenato (Music)You’ll notice that Folk music from all cultures and ethnicities are grouped together;
57 LCGFT – Notated music Notated music Musical sketches Part books Parts (Music)ScoresService books (Music)SongbooksTune-booksThese are all terms you might have seen as subdivisions of LCSH terms in the catalog; using LCGFT they will be separated.
58 LCGFT – Popular music Popular music Mandó (Music) Mangue (Music) Agbadja modern (Music)Arabesk (Popular music)BachataBailā (Music)Banda (Music)BeatboxingBhangra (Music)BikutsiBlues (Music)Boogaloos (Music)Bossa nova (Music)Brega (Music)Cajun musicCalypso (Music)CampursariCandombes (Music)Cavachas (Music)Celtic musicChaabiChampeta (Music)Chanchona (Music)ChichaChorosChutney (Music)Country musicCover versionsCumbia (Music)DangdutDansi (Music)Danzones (Music)Disco (Music)Electronica (Music) Enka Forró (Music) Fuji (Music) Funana (Music) Funk (Music) Gaitas (Venezuelan music) Gospel music Gumbé (Music) Habaneras (Music) High-life (Music) Huaylas (Music) Huaynos Jazz Jingles (Advertising songs) Juju music Kanto (Popular music) Karaoke Kaskawi (Music) Keroncong Klezmer music Konkoma Kwaito Kwaya Latin pop Lounge music Lundus Makossa (Music) Maloya (Music)Mandó (Music)Mangue (Music)Mariachi (Music)MbalaxMbaqangaMchirikuMinstrel musicModinhasMornas (Music)MurgasMúsica sertanejaMúsica tropicalNew Age musicNorteño (Music)Old-time musicRagtime musicRai (Music)Rap (Music)RapsoRebetikaReggae musicRemixes (Music)Rhythm and blues musicRock musicRocksteady (Music)Rumbas (Music)Salsa (Music)SchrammelmusikSka (Music)SkiffleSonesSoukous (Music)Soul musicSteampunk musicSwamp pop musicTaraab (Music)Tejano musicTimba (Music)Tropicália (Music)Tspapiky (Music)Turbo-folk (Music)Vallenato (Music)Waila musicWorldbeat (Music)Zouk (Music)Zydeco musicLots and lots of popular music genres! The hierarchy is a bit shallow here, except for a few deeper areas like Jazz and Rock music, which have a lot of narrower terms.
59 LCGFT – Other hierarchies Derivative worksArrangements (Music)llustrated worksFingering chartsInformational worksThematic catalogsInstructional and educational worksMaster classesTeaching piecesLiteratureLibrettosSound recordingsCover versionsHuman soundsPlayer piano accompanimentsRemixes (Music)Samplers (Sound recordings)Some terms were identified that fit into already exiting hierarchies like Information works, Instructional and educational works, and Sound recordings.
60 Highlights of the Vocabularies Thom PeaseLibrary of Congress
61 Top TermsMusic Art music Dramatic music Chants Functional music Folk music Popular music Popular music Sacred music World music Songs Sound art Arrangements (Music)
62 New TermsFilling gaps in the hierarchy (Art music, Event music, Functional music, Notated music)Split and separated termsSome new terms (which have literary warrant and scope notes)New terms to replace former form subdivisionsExamples: Preludes, Sea chanteys (vs. Sea songs)
64 What’s not therePsalms and other texts of sacred music not considered forms.Still there: Masses, RequiemsHeadings denoting medium of performance and/or the number of instruments (Quartets, nonets and String quartets, Piano trios, Woodwind quintets)Terms which just meant popular music or folk music, etc. of a particular country or region.
65 Passionate discussions Lots of terms with implicit facets to them (Nations, ethnicities, time periods, language, audience & creator/contributor characteristics)Many terms inherently instrumental or vocal.The loss of cross-references under pre-coordinated strings, and their narrower terms.Narrower definitions of terms long in use
66 Taking Chances Performing arts terms Event and expression terms Other general terms proposedEvent and expression termsMaster classes, Concerts, recitals, Benefit performances, Concert tours, etc.
67 Form terms Antiphonaries Kyriales Lead sheets Missals (Service books) Parts (Music)Thematic catalogs (Music)Tune books
68 Those that didn’t make it DESPAIR NOT!More tentative and approved lists to come.New terms can be proposed, hierarchies can be changed, and existing terms can be changed.Collaborating with other groups to fill in the hierarchy for terms that border music and are multi-disciplinary
69 Issues to work through Expression and manifestation terms Terms which overlap with other projectsPerforming arts & visual arts, multimedia terms.Events vs. terms in SR/MI hierarchiesJust ran out of time to get everything in before the deadline.
88 Determine medium of performance Choose term(s) from LCMPTDo not alter termsUse MARC 382 fieldEach term in separate $aFollow $a with number of performers in $nTotal number of performers in $s after last $n$2 lcmpt
92 Multiple 382s for alternatives work for string quartet OR string orchestra$a violin $n 2 $a viola $n 1 $a cello $n 1 $s 4$2 lcmpt$a string orchestra $2 lcmpt*alternative mediums of performance for a single work
93 Multiple 382s for “ad libitum” parts $a soprano voice $n 1 $a violin $n 1$a piano $n 1 $s 3 $2 lcmpt$a soprano voice $n 1 $a piano $n 1$s 2 $2 lcmpt*alternative mediums of performance for a single work
101 Topics still in flux instruments played not played with two hands continuopercussionelectronicsvisuals
102 Casey Mullin Stanford University LCGFT Best PracticesCasey MullinStanford University
103 Provisional Best Practices for Using LCGFT for Music Resources Even more provisional than the LCMPT best practices!Hot off the press; to be published shortly after MOUG/MLA meetingMore detailed guidance will emerge as community application maturesYou are our guinea pigs. Get to work!LCMPT and LCGFT best practices eventually covered in forthcoming LC manual
105 MARC 655 $a (Genre/form term) $2 (Source of term) $2 lcgftSubdivisions ($v, $x, $y, $z)Do not use any subdivisions with LCGFT terms.
106 General guidelinesGenerally choose the most specific term available and appropriate.655 #7 $a Concertos. $2 lcgftNOT655 #7 $a Art music. $2 lcgft
107 General guidelinesIf the work being cataloged combines aspects of two genres/forms that are in different hierarchies, or exemplifies more than one genre/form, give multiple terms as appropriate.An art song:655 #7 $a Songs. $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Art music. $2 lcgftAn album of pop songs:655 #7 $a Popular music. $2 lcgft
108 General guidelinesFor notated music resources, assign one or more terms appropriate to the format of notated music, in addition to any genre/form terms describing the musical work. Generally observe the RDA definitions of these formats.A set of parts with score of a string quartet:655 #7 $a Scores. $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Parts (Music) $2 lcgftA solo piano work:
109 Art music and Folk music Do not use the terms “Art music” or “Folk music” for the music of cultures that have no art/folk music division.Use “Art music” for works of art music that cannot be described using more specific terms in the Art music hierarchy, and for works of art music otherwise described by terms that are not in the Art music hierarchy (e.g., Songs, Dance music).A bourrée for harpsichord:655 #7 $a Bourrées (Music) $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Art music. $2 lcgft
110 Chamber musicUse “Chamber music” (or one of its narrower terms) for works of art music for 2 or more performers whose medium is described in terms of individual instruments/voices and/or by unspecified ensemble terms (e.g., “bowed string ensemble”). Generally do not use “Chamber music” for:Works for larger ensembles (e.g., orchestra, band, chorus)Art songs with pianoMusic for solo performersNo scope note; use judgment in edge cases!Did we mention the “provisional” part?There is of course a gray area with larger ensembles. Hence, “generally.”
111 Use with LCSHUntil LCGFT terms are fully implemented and a method for converting genre and medium of performance terms currently coded as LCSH:Use LCMPT terms in 382Use LCGFT terms in 655Continue to use LCSH terms (Genre/form, medium of performance & mixed headings) in 650 field according to the guidelines in the Subject Headings Manual$b bassoon $n 1 $a orchestra $e 1 $2 lcmpt 650 #0 $a Concertos (Bassoon)655 #7 $a Concertos .$2 lcgft $a violin $n 2 $a viola $n 1 $a cello $n 1 $s 4 $2 lcmpt 650 #0 $a String quartets. 655 #7 $a Chamber music. $2 lcgftYou’re going to hear this multiple times today, but it bears repeating.
112 Use of LCMPT and LCGFT in cataloging Hermine VermeijUCLA
113 Where will I be seeing these things? Bibliographic recordsAuthority records
119 So I have to do extra work? Yes, for now.Still assigning subject headings to musical works in addition to genre/form and medium of performance terms.Eventually, we will not be assigning LCSH to musical works unless they are topical subjects.
120 Typical bib record for a score 100 1# $a Telemann, Georg Philipp, $d , $e composer.$a Concertos, $m flute, string orchestra, $n TWV 51:G1, $r G major…$b flute $n 1 $a string orchestra $e 1 $2 lcmpt650 #0 $a Concertos (Flute with string orchestra) $v Scores.655 #7 $a Concertos. $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Scores. $2 lcgft
121 Typical authority record for a work 046 ## $k # $a Prokofiev, Sergey, $d $t Detskie pesni 380 1# $a Songs $2 lcgft 382 0# $a singer $n 1 $a piano $n 1 $s 2 $2 lcmpt …
122 What if I don’t know what to do when [insert crazy situation here]? Check LCMPT and LCGFT best practicesTake a guess!Or start a conversation on an listThis is new for all of us, and we’re trying to figure out where the holes are.Your problem might eventually make its way into the next version of best practices.
127 Example – Bi-level 382 assignment 100 1_ Nelson, Oliver, $d , $e composer, $e arranger of music Flute salad : $b a terrific addition to any program : as recorded on "Sound pieces" by the Oliver Nelson Orchestra / $c composed and arranged by Oliver Nelson ; edited by Robert Curnow big band $2 lcmpt flute $n 4 $a alto saxophone $n 2 $a tenor saxophone $n 2 $a baritone saxophone $n 1 $a bass clarinet $n 1 $a trumpet $n 2 $d flugelhorn $n 2 $a trumpet $n 2 $a trombone $n 3 $a bass trombone $n 1 $a piano $n 1 $a electric guitar $n 1 $a double bass $n 1 $a drum set $n 1 $s 22 $2 lcmpt 500 __ For jazz band (4 flutes (optional), 5 saxophones, bass clarinet (optional), 4 trumpets (2 doubling flugelhorn), 4 trombones, piano, guitar (optional), bass, and drums). 650 _0 Big band music $v Scores and parts. 650 _0 Jazz $y _7 Jazz. $2 lcgft 655 _7 Scores. $2 lcgft 655 _7 Parts (Music) $2 lcgft2nd 382 especially useful since complement of big band is not standardOptional instruments described in 500 note. Could also make a 382 without the optional instruments, or with some of the optional instruments. A rabbit hole!Can bring out the time period by giving date of work in 046.
128 Example #1: Popular music Super Afro soul [sound recording] / Orlando Julius.$a singer $n 1 $a instrumental ensemble $e 1 $2 lcmpt$a Previously released selections from his 1966 debut album (Strut Records).$a Orlando Julius, vocals ; with accompanying musicians.650 _0 $a Popular music $z Nigeria $y655 _7 $a Afrobeat. $2 lcgft655_7 $a Popular music. $2 lcgft655 _7 $a Highlife (Music) $2 lcgft
129 Example #2: Popular music $a Dos grandes de Sinaloa [sound recording]. 650 _0 $a Popular music $a Mexico $y _0 $a Banda (Music) 655 _7 $a Popular music. $a lcgft 655 _7 $a Banda (Music) $2 lcgft
130 Example: Ethnic Medium and Associated Place $a Spiridon$a Jew’s harp $n 1 $s 1 $2 lcmpt370 __ $c Russia (Federation) $f Sakha (Russia) $2 lcsh500 __ Traditional khomus music from Sakha province, Russia.650 _0 Folk music $z Russia (Federation) $z Sakha.655 _7 Folk music. $2 lcgftMy best guess at the 370
131 Example: Ethnic Medium and Associated Place $a Urban music of the Edo period ( )370 __ $c Japan $2 lcsh$a shakuhachi $n 1 $a shamisen $n 1 $a koto $n 1 $s 3 $2 lcmpt500 __ $a Classical music from Japan for shakuhachi, shamisen, and koto.650 _0 $a Music $z Japan.655 _7 $a Art music. $2 lcgftI think this use of Art music is appropriate.
132 Example: No genre100 1# $a Tanguy, Eric, $e composer $a Duet, $m flute, clarinet $a Duo pour flûte & clarinette en si bémol (1994) / $c Eric Tanguy. … $a flute $n 1 $a clarinet $n 1 $s 2 $2 lcmpt 650 #0 $a Clarinet and flute music $v Scores. 655 #7 $a Chamber music. $2 lcgft 655 #7 $a Scores. $2 lcgft
145 Exercise 100 1# Piazzolla, Astor, $e composer. Histoire du tango : $b pour flûte et guitare /$c Astor Piazzolla....382 __________650 __________655 __________
146 Exercise 100 1# Piazzolla, Astor, $e composer. Histoire du tango : $b pour flûte et guitare /$c Astor Piazzolla....$a flute $n 1 $a guitar $n 1 $s 2 $2 lcmpt650 #0 Tangos $v Scores.650 #0 Flute and guitar music $v Scores.655 #7 Tangos (Music) $2 lcgft655 #7 Art music. $2 lcgft655 #7 Scores. $2 lcgft
147 Exercise #1: Popular music Love celebration devotion [sound recording] : live in concert / Maria Bethânia. $a Recorded live, Vivo Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Mar , _0 $a Popular music |z Brazil |y _0 $a Songs, Portuguese. 655 _7 $a _______________. $2 ____
148 Another exercise: Popular music $a Broadway, USA! Vol. 5, Little bit gay [sound recording] : gay musical / music and lyrics by Cude & Pickens. 650 _0 $a Revues. 650 _0 $a Gay men $v Songs and music. 655 _7 $a _____________. $2 ____
149 Broadway, USA! (answers) $a Broadway, USA! Vol. 5, Little bit gay [sound recording] : gay musical / music and lyrics by Cude & Pickens. 650 _0 $a Revues. 650 _0 $a Gay men $v Songs and music. 655 _7 $a _Revues. $2 lcgft_
150 Exercise #3$a Sounds from a bygone age. Vol. 3, Dona Dumitru Siminica. 518 $a Recorded in the early 1960s at Electrecord Studio, Romania. 650 _0 $a Popular music $z Romania $y _7 $a __________. $2 ____
151 Exercise #3 (answers)$a Sounds from a bygone age. Vol. 3, Dona Dumitru Siminica. 518 $a Recorded in the early 1960s at Electrecord Studio, Romania. 650 _0 $a Popular music $z Romania $y _7 $a _Popular music.
152 Exercise #4 (slide #1)$a At home with friends [sound recording].511 0_ $a Joshua Bell, violin ; with various featured performers.$a Recorded Apr.-Aug505 0_ $a I loves you Porgy |r (featuring Chris Botti, trumpet) -- |t Come again |r (featuring Sting, vocals) -- |t Oblivión |r (featuring Carel Kraayenhof, bandoneon) -- |t Cinema Paradiso |r (featuring Josh Groban, vocals) -- |t Para tí |r (featuring Tiempo Libre) -- |t My funny Valentine |r (featuring Kristin Chenoweth, vocals) -- |t Maybe so |r (featuring Edgar Meyer, double bass, Sam Bush, mandolin, and Mike Marshall, guitar) …[etc.]
153 Exercise #4 (slide #2)650 _0 $a Popular music $y _0 $a Jazz $y _0 $a Chamber music. 655 _7 $a _____________. $2 ____ 655 _7 $a ______________. $2 _____
156 Exercise – Art music compilation 100 1_ Bridge, Frank, $e composer Early chamber music / $c Frank Bridge _ String sextet in E flat major ( ) (27:02) -- Lament for two violas (1912) (8:51) -- String quintet in E minor (1901) (30:07). 650 _0 String sextets (Violins (2), violas (2), cellos (2)) 650 _0 String quintets (Violins (2), violas (2), cello) 650 _0 Viola music (Violas (2))
157 Exercise – Art music compilation $a ___________ $2 lcmpt 655 _7 $3 1st work: $a ___________. $2 lcgft 655 _7 $3 2nd work: $a ___________. $2 lcgft 655 _7 $3 3rd work: $a ___________. $2 lcgftShowing just the new fields here.
161 Exercise: Extra credit 2 046 ## ______________$a Masterpieces of French harpsichord music.300 ## $a 1 audio disc ; $c 4 3/4 in.370 ## ____________________________388 2# ______________650 #0 $a Harpsichord music $z France $y 18th century.655 #7 ______________
162 Exercise: Extra credit 2 (answers) 046 ## $k 18$a Masterpieces of French harpsichord music.300 ## $a 1 audio disc ; $c 4 3/4 in.370 ## $g France $2 naf [a potential solution]$a harpsichord $n 1 $s 1 $2 lcmpt388 2# $a 18th century [a potential solution]650 #0 $a Harpsichord music $z France $y 18th century.655 #7 $a Chamber music. $2 lcgft
163 Exercise: Ethnic music $a Andes : $b les flûtes du soleil.300 ## $a 1 audio disc ; $c 4 3/4 in.370 ## ________________________________________________386 ## ________________________500 ## $a Principally instrumental folk music featuring Andean flutes.650 #0 $a Folk music $z Andes Region.650 #0 $a Folk songs, Spanish $z Andes Region.650 #0 $a Indians of South America $a Andes Region $v Music.650 #0 $a Panpipes ensembles.655 #7 ________________________
164 Exercise: Ethnic music (answers) $a Andes : $b les flûtes du soleil.300 ## $a 1 audio disc ; $c 4 3/4 in.370 ## $g Andes Region $2 naf [a potential solution]$a panpipes ensemble $2 lcmpt386 ## $a Indians of South America $2 lcsh [a potential solution]500 ## $a Principally instrumental folk music featuring Andean flutes.650 #0 $a Folk music $z Andes Region.650 #0 $a Folk songs, Spanish $z Andes Region.650 #0 $a Indians of South America $a Andes Region $v Music.650 #0 $a Panpipes ensembles.655 #7 $a Folk music. $2 lcgft655 #7 $a Folk songs. $2 lcgft
167 LCGFT & LCMPT in Library Systems DisplayIndexingFacetsSearchSince the development of the LCGFT and LCMPT vocabularies is fairly recent, and their use is not yet totally widespread, many library catalogs are not set up to use them to their full potential. One thing I’ve learned from my local shop is the development of the system itself tends to lag behind the use of new data because coders like to have actual data to use during the programming process. Unfortunately this is a chicken and egg situation. Should the data be created without any practical application, or should the program be developed to promote the use of the data? Sometimes it takes a leap of faith, usually taken by us catalogers, to get things started.There are four areas of the library system which must be developed in order to take full advantage of these new music vocabularies: display, indexing, facets, and search. I will talk a little about each of these aspects and give my thoughts on how systems COULD be developed. Much of what I am about to tell you is really personal opinion, perhaps based on very little actual knowledge of how library systems function. (I’m not a coder.) But these ideas are informed by conversations and committee work which I have undertaken with my local ILS staff.
168 DisplayHow should LCGFT & LCMPT vocabularies look in the catalog record display?What data should be displayed?Where should it be displayed?Should this data also be displayed in results lists?
169 LCGFT Display (MARC 655) Locate near subject headings? Use display label “Genre / Form”?Display 655 $aDo not display 655 “$2 lcgft”Note: There are other genre / form thesauri (and non-thesaurus terms) which are also coded in 655. Some of these 655s contain subfieldsThe display of LCGFT in the 655 field is fairly straightforward. ...
170 Here’s the bib record for the film Time Bandits as seen in the Stanford catalog. I’m using a motion picture bib record as an example because the music LCGFT terms were just published about a week ago, and I haven’t yet seen any music genre/form terms used in bib records. Maybe one of our other presenters have some examples to show us.
171 Scrolling down the page, we see that the subject headings and genre headings are separated, but next to each other.
172 Here’s the same BluRay videodisc in the University of Chicago catalog.
173 Scroll down, and we see that the subject headings and the genre/form headings combined under the same label “Subject.”
174 Here’s a screenshot from WorldCat, the old one Here’s a screenshot from WorldCat, the old one. Here, subject and genre/form have their own labels, but are located quite far from one another, separated by “Find a copy in the library”, which I had to compact in order to get both to appear on the same screen. Display decisions are difficult to make when screen real estate comes
175 But strangely, the newer WorldCat Discovery doesn’t distinguish between Subject and Genre/Form.
177 LCMPT Display (MARC 382) Location? Display constant? Order of MOP terms?Punctuation?The display of LCMPT data in the 382 field is quite a bit more complicated. This is due to the fact that there is a lot of data coded into a single MARC field. Compounding this is a usage in which subfields are repeated and subfield order is semantically important. Many, if not most, library catalogs do not yet even display MARC 382 data, but there are a few that do.
178 UCLA’s catalog displays “Medium of performance” right next to the subject headings.
179 Stanford lists “Instrumentation” immediately following the physical description (300 field data).
180 WorldCat Discovery places “Medium of performance” below the subjects.
181 But old-school WorldCat puts it further down the page, beneath the physical description.
182 LCMPT Display (MARC 382) Location? Near the genre / form terms? Near the physical description?Somewhere else?The question of where in the catalog record display to locate the medium of performance data is a complicated and controversial one to answer. Should the medium of performance be listed next to the genre/form terms, since they work together to describe the music (like our old current subject heading usage)? Or should MOP be placed somewhere else in the bib record display? For scores, the medium of performance is one of the most important pieces of information for users.Maybe if you have a really cool and ambitious systems person, you can convince her/him to locate the MOP data in a different spot depending upon the type of resource: score = near the top; audio = close to the genre/form headings.This question can only really be answered by you and your individual library.
183 LCMPT Display (MARC 382) Location? Display constant? “Medium of performance”?“Instrumentation”?“Performance medium”?“Performing forces”?“Partial medium of performance”?This second question is probably the least troublesome, which display constant is appropriate. Use a sensible term like “Medium of performance” or “Instrumentation.” Be aware that the phrase “medium of performance” may not be clear to many users, including many musicians. The term “instrumentation” may be more generally understood, but are singers included in instrumentation.And don’t forget when you code the first indicator 1 (instead of 0), this indicates a partial medium of performance.
184 LCMPT Display (MARC 382) Location? Display constant? Order of MOP terms?Display in order as coded in 382Should soloists ($b) always be first?This question can probably be answered by saying: Display MOP terms in the order in which they are coded in the 382 field. This seems obvious to us as catalogers, who spend great energy making sure that MARC fields and subfields are in a certain logical order. But always be explicit with every instruction when talking with programmers, else they may think they are being efficient (or helping you) by ordering subfields alphabetically for display.However, one question which is important to address is the placement of the $b soloists. Should they always come first in the MOP?
185 LCMPT Display (MARC 382) Location? Display constant? Order of MOP terms?Punctuation / labels?The punctuation or labels used in display will probably be the most difficult to work out. We want to find the clearest, but also most concise, way to display the data contained in a MARC field which has no human-readable punctuation (besides that found in the note subfield). There are many options here; some of these ideas will take more development time (by programmers) to implement.
186 Number of performers ($n) No punctuation, just a space?violin 1 flute 2 guitar 4$n in parentheses?violin(1) flute(2) guitar(4)$n preceding term?1 violin 2 flute 4 guitarWhat if no $n?In the 382, the number of performers is coded in the $n following the medium term. There are several possible ways a catalog could display this number: no punctuation, just a space; surround the number in parentheses. One interesting possibility would be to program the catalog to display the number before the medium term. And if there is no $n, should the catalog simply display the term alone, or does this require some other indication?
187 Punctuation between $a or $b terms Comma?violin(1), flute(1), guitar(1)Semicolon?4 guitar ; orchestraPipe?electric guitar(1) | bass guitar(1) | drum set(1)Nothing but space?mixed chorus orchestra
188 Soloist ($b) “soloist: ” or “[soloist]”? soloist:oboe(1), band oboe(1)[soloist], band“solo”?solo violin(1) ; solo cello(1) ; orchestra“with”?soprano voice(1) with mixed chorus, orchestraNo special indication?1 piano, percussion ensemble
189 Alternative MOP ($p) “alternative” or “alternatively”? violin(1) alternatively flute(1), piano(1)“ or ”?violin(1) or flute(1), piano(1)“/”?violin(1)/flute(1), piano(1)Possibly drop $n from display after $p?violin(1) or flute, piano(1)
190 Doubling MOP ($d) “doubling”? flute(1) doubling piccolo(1), piano(1) “+” or “ & ” or “/”?flute(1)+piccolo(1), piano(1)flute(1) & piccolo(1), piano(1)flute(1)/piccolo(1), piano(1)Possibly drop $n from display after $d?flute(1)+piccolo, piano(1)
191 Note ($v) Display text as written Indicate note by some punctuation Parentheses or brackets?mixed chorus[SATB]piano(2)[piano, 4 hands]Comma?mixed chorus, SATBpiano(2), piano, 4 hands
192 “Easiest”[?!?] recommendations Wrap subfields n in parenthesesWrap subfields v in square bracketsChange all “$a” into “, ”Change all “$b” into “, solo ”Change all “$p” into “ or ”Change all “$d” into “+”Remove first comma ($a or $b preceding first term)Do not display subfields s or 2Use a sensible display constant and location
193 Examples violin(2), viola(1), cello(1) solo soprano voice(1), mixed chorus[SATB]flute(1)+alto flute(1), piano(2)[piano, 4 hands]Partial medium of performance: violin(1) or flute(1) or oboe(1)* “Legacy” 382s (before publication of LCMPT and best practices) should display fine, although vocabulary will be different
194 IndexingHow should LCGFT & LCMPT vocabularies be indexed to allow proper functionality?What data should be indexed?How should it be indexed?
195 LCGFT Indexing (MARC 655) Create a separate genre/form index? Index $a?Do not index $2Other thesauri also present in 655
196 LCMPT Indexing (MARC 382) index1: MOP term alone (without number) $a Keyword index only?$vindex2: MOP term and number together$a $n$b $n$d $n$p $n$a $e$p $e
197 LCMPT Indexing (MARC 382) Only index field if contains “$2 lcmpt” If no “$2 lcmpt”, index as keyword only?Do NOT index $2Not sure what to do with $s
204 Medium of Performancepiano (5)violin (5)cello (3)cello 1 (3)piano 1 (3)more...Genre/FormChamber music (3)Minuets (Music) (2)Sonatas (2)Concertos (1)Scherzos (1)
205 Medium of Performancepiano (5)violin (5)cello (3)cello 1 (3)piano 1 (3)violin 1 (3)piano 2 (2)viola (2)viola 1 (2)violin 2 (2)piano, 4 hands (1)Genre/FormChamber music (3)Minuets (Music) (2)Sonatas (2)Concertos (1)Scherzos (1)more...
206 Current Limitsx Format: Music scorex Medium of Performance: violin 1x Medium of Performance: piano 1x Genre/Form: SonatasMedium of Performancepiano (5)violin (5)cello (3)cello 1 (3)piano 1 xviolin 1 xmore...Genre/FormChamber music (3)Minuets (Music) (2)Sonatas xConcertos (1)Scherzos (1)
207 Medium of Performancecello (3)↳ cello 1 (3)piano (5)↳ piano 1 (3)↳ piano 2 (2)viola (2)↳ viola 1 (2)violin (5)↳ violin 1 (3)↳ violin 2 (2)piano, 4 hands (1)Genre/FormChamber music (3)Minuets (Music) (2)Sonatas (2)Concertos (1)Scherzos (1)more...
208 Search Current state of LCGFT & LCMPT searches Possible to use keyword searches for both Genre/Form and Medium of PerformanceSome catalogs have separate Genre/Form search typeA few home-grown Medium of Performance search interfaces, but built on MARC 048
210 LCGFT & LCMPT in Library Systems DisplayIndexingFacetsSearch
211 Existing Subject Headings Casey MullinStanford University
212 Conversion of legacy 650 “subject” headings Requirements Each 650 should beget, at least, one 382 and/or one 655 fieldAlgorithm should work equally well for score and sound recording recordsTerms in machine-generated fields must be conformant to LCGFT and LCMPTMachine-generated fields should ideally be conformant to MLA best practicesDuplicate fields should be removed650 fields retained for the time beingFields retained because, among other reasons, other facets (creator/contributor characteristics, audience, language, geography, time period) have to be dealt with soon.Records will be hybrid for some time!
213 Conversion of legacy 650 “subject” headings Challenges (to name a few) Implicit medium of performance (e.g., “Symphonies”, “Monologues with music”)Differences in vocabularyLCSH (“mixed voices”) vs. LCMPT (“mixed chorus”)LCSH (“Canons, fugues, etc.”) vs. LCGFT (“Canons” or “Fugues”)Completely new terms in LCGFT (“Art music”)Identifying solo performersTrue “topical” headings: how to distinguish?By presence of certain values in $v? (e.g., “Songs and music”)Or don’t worry and just let them “fail” the algorithm?Videorecording records?Possible influence on best practicesCompletely new terms: can only be inferred at best from 650sTopical headings: the system can’t tell which 650s are actually topical headings vs. form/genre/medium constructions.Possible influence: for example, if Art music can’t be automatically assigned to appropriate works that have no specific genre/form, should we be doing so in new records?? On the other hand, should we impose such limits on ourselves going forward?
214 Conversion of legacy 650 “subject” headings 650-to-382 algorithm (draft outline, version 0.1) Isolation and delimiting of raw string of terms expressing or implying medium of performanceRemoving non-medium content (particles, punctuation, etc.)Generating implied medium terms based on certain form/genre termsMapping delimited MOP terms to 382 fieldConverting terms to singularConverting terms to authorized LCMPT formIdentifying solo performersAddition of $n or $e after each termAddition of $s“Semantic” conversion and “Syntactic” conversion (thanks Brad Young).
215 Conversion of legacy 650 “subject” headings 650-to-382 algorithm (example) 650 _0 $a Sonatas (Violin and piano) Sonatas (Violin and piano) Violin and piano Violin|piano 382 _1 $2 lcmpt 382 _1 $a Violin $a piano $2 lcmpt 382 _1 $a Violin $n 1 $a piano $n 1 $2 lcmpt 382 _1 $a Violin $n 1 $a piano $n 1 $s 2 $2 lcmptYou’ll notice “Violin” is capitalized…
216 Conversion of legacy 650 “subject” headings Timeline (work done primarily by BCC Subject Access Subcommittee)Fall 2014048-to-382 mapping createdH studied for 650 patterns and permutationsJanuary-February 2015: 650-to-382 algorithm draftedSpring 2015Refinement of 650-to-382 algorithmDrafting and refinement of 650-to-655 algorithmSummer-Fall 2015: testing, testing and more testing!Who? OCLC, LC, PCC, other willing institutionsFollowing model of phased RDA conversion of LCNAF2016 (??): Agencies begin using converter in production databases
217 Fate of existing LCSH headings LCSH likely to remain in score and sound recording records for some time to comeLCGFT/LCMPT algorithm may never be perfectDiscovery systems need time to catch upWhat about works about music?Not all LCSH music headings are appropriate for topical useWhat’s the granularity “cutoff”?Uncontrolled pattern headings“Cutoff” – see next slidePattern headings can’t be “cancelled”; must be identified through other means
218 Fate of existing LCSH headings Types of topical music headingsTopical only, per scope note and SHMOpera (vs. form heading Operas)Usable as topical or formSymphonic poems (presence of $x History and criticism signals topical use)Usable as topical or mediumViolin musicHow granular should topical music headings be?Headings qualified by languageSongs, FrenchHeadings that combine form/genre and mediumConcertos (Piano) (might be worth keeping)Suites (Bassoon, clarinet, trombones (2), double bass, percussion) (maybe not)Headings qualified by Sacred/SecularCantatas, Secular (or postcoordinate with Sacred music?)Stay tuned!!Again, where’s the cutoff? Many decisions need to be made.
219 Beth Iseminger Harvard University LCMPT and RDABeth IsemingerHarvard University
220 Isn’t this about genre and medium? Yes! but...Principle goal for LCMPT = accessLCMPT also used for RDA medium of performance element = identification
221 RDA and Medium of Performance RDA still contains instructions that prescribe how to identify certain mediums of performanceaccompanying ensembles with one performer to a partsolo instruments with accompanying ensembleorchestra/string orchestra/band (especially this one!)solo voices and choruses (and this one!)The JSC Music Working Group will be looking at revising at least some of these instructions in 2015, especially those that have closed lists of terms.
222 MLA Best Practices for RDA Best Practices for Use with RDA and MARC21 recommends:When recording medium for an access point, also record it as a separate element in the 382 field.When recording medium in a bib record, give the medium that corresponds to that particular expression.
223 Differences Differences in LCMPT Best Practices and DCM Z1 DCM Z1 recommends adding $n for ensemblesDCM = LC’s Descriptive Cataloging ManualLCMPT BPs recommend NOT adding $n for ensembles. MLA proposed $e for number of ensembles which was approved in January 2015.Difference in the 382 field for bib and authority recordsAuthority 382 has no indicators for accessBib 382 has 2nd indicator for access/no accessGoal is for these standards to be harmonized – work in progress!
224 Janis Young Library of Congress Making ProposalsJanis Young Library of Congress
225 LCMPT Submit proposals through the SACO Music Funnel New terms Revisions to existing terms
226 LCGFT PSD will start to accept proposals later this year New termsRevisions to existing termsSubmit all proposals through the SACO Music Funnel?
227 SACO Music Funnel For information about the funnel Nancy Lorimer, funnel coordinator, at
228 Basic Requirements for Proposals Literary warrantA work that requires the termResearch showing usage and definitions that appear in reference sources, such asThe Grove Dictionary of Musical InstrumentsThe Oxford Dictionary of MusicThe New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
229 Basic Requirements for Proposals Reference structureVariant forms (UFs), if anyAt least one hierarchical reference (BT)A scope note if considered necessary
230 Basic Requirements for Proposals For now, follow the general rules in the Subject Headings Manual, especially:H 306, Natural Language in Topical Subject HeadingsH 315, Foreign TermsH 357, Parenthetical Qualifiers in Subject HeadingsH 370 & 373, UF and BT referencesH 400, Scope NotesA separate manual for LCMPT and LCGFT is under development
231 By submitting proposals, you can help to maintain the viability of the vocabularies for future generations!