Presentation on theme: "LCMPT Library of Congress Medium of Performance Thesaurus for Music Hermine Vermeij, UCLA."— Presentation transcript:
LCMPT Library of Congress Medium of Performance Thesaurus for Music Hermine Vermeij, UCLA
What is medium of performance? The instruments, voices, etc. used in the performance of a musical work (Almost)All musical works have a medium of performance Examples: Beethoven’s Symphony no. 5: orchestra Schubert’s String quintet in C major: 2 violins, 1 viola, and 2 cellos
How we use LCSH to record medium of performance LCSH headings for music conflate genre/form and medium of performance Incredibly complex rules for heading construction For some light reading, consult H 1917.5 in the Subject Headings Manual Examples: Orchestral music String quintets (Violins (2), viola, cellos (2))
What’s wrong with LCSH? Part 1 Concertos (Piano) Denotes the genre/form (Concertos) as well as the medium of performance (Piano) “Infers” orchestra, because most concertos are accompanied by an orchestra
What’s wrong with LCSH? Part 2 Quintets (Harpsichord, bassoon, flute, viola, cello) Constructed according to complex rules: first keyboard instrument(s), then wind instruments in alphabetical order, then string instruments in score order Text string cannot be parsed by a machine
What’s wrong with LCSH? Part 3 Sonatas (Flute and piano) Suites (Flute and piano) Flute and piano music Three headings that are all for the same instrumentation No way to retrieve all music written for flute and piano
What’s wrong with LCSH? Part 4 Percussion ensembles Covers all pieces written for two or more percussionists Very little granularity ? ? ??
Solution: LCGFT and LCMPT In 2007 the Library of Congress and the Music Library Association began a collaboration to remove music genre/form terms from LCSH and add them to the Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms(LCGFT) Medium of performance terms were determined to be separate from genre/form New thesaurus!
LCGFT Work on the music portion of LCGFT is ongoing LC and MLA hope to have a tentative list ready by early 2015 Once ready, music LCGFT terms will be post- coordinated with LCMPT terms to replace the music LCSH headings that have been used purely for genre/form access Subject headings that are used topically will remain in LCSH.
LCMPT Released in February 2014 Over 800 terms Generally singular, lowercase Three top terms: ensemble, performer, and visuals Each term has at least one broader term Many terms have scope notes
Availability of LCMPT Classification Web As linked data (breaking news!): http://id.loc.gov/authorities/performanceMediums.html http://id.loc.gov/authorities/performanceMediums.html Download LCMPT in MARC UTF-8 format: http://classification web.net/LCMPT/
LCMPT record example 010$a mp2013015268 040$a DLC $b eng $c DLC $e lcmpt 162$a flute 462$a Boehm flute 462$a concert flute 462$a transverse flute 562$w $g $a ductless flute 680$i The flute of European art music. For generic uses of flute see $a ductless flute $i or $a duct flute. lccn preferred term cross- references broader term scope note
LCMPT Hierarchy Overview ensemble audience instrumental ensemble accordion band balalaika orchestra band bowed string ensemble concertina ensemble continuo dulcimer ensemble electronics gamelan gonrang keyboard ensemble harmonica ensemble jug band khrū̜ang sāi mahōrī orchestra percussion ensemble pipe band pīphāt plucked instrument ensemble plung orchestra string band toy orchestra washboard band wind ensemble zither ensemble mixed media vocal ensemble chorus solo vocal ensemble performer actor audience celebrant conductor dancer tap dancer instrument aerophone electronic instrument friction instrument idiophone keyboard instrument mechanical instrument membranophone percussion instrument plucked instrument string instrument toy instrument mixed media mime signer voice singer speaker visuals
LCMPT Best Practices Provisional best practices now available: http://bcc.musiclibraryassoc.org/BCC- Historical/BCC2014/ProvisionalBestPracticesf orUsingLCMPT%20FINAL.pdf Fuller best practices will be developed once LCGFT for music is released
MARC coding LCMPT terms are coded in the 382 field in both bibliographic and authority records MLA and LC put through several MARC proposals in the last few years to massage the 382 to be more granular
382 overview 1 st indicator – Usually 0 for Medium of performance 2 nd indicator – Coded 1 in bib records for Intended for access $a – Medium of performance (where most of the LCMPT terms go $b – Soloist (when there is a featured instrument or voice) $d – Doubling instrument (when a performer plays more than one instrument)
382 overview (continued) $n – Number of performers of the same medium $p – Alternative medium of performance $s – Total number of performers $v - Note
382 example (simple) Medium of performance: string quartet 382 01 $a violin $n 2 $a viola $n 1 $a cello $n 1 $s 4 $2 lcmpt
382 example (complicated) Medium of performance: clarinet (doubling castanets) and oboe (doubling finger snapping) 382 01 $a clarinet $n 1 $d castanets $n 1 $a oboe $n 1 $d finger snapping $n 1 $s 2 $2 lcmpt +
382 example (bonkers) Medium of performance: soprano soloist accompanied by flute (doubling penny whistle), toy piano (or celesta), and handbell choir. 382 01 $b soprano voice $n 1 $a flute $n 1 $d penny whistle $n 1 $a toy piano $n 1 $p celesta $n 1 $a handbell choir $2 lcmpt + or
Still in flux Piano 4 hands, etc. Temporarily: 382 01 $a piano $n 2 $s 2 $v piano, 4 hands $2 lcmpt Popular music Sometimes it makes sense to include a 382 like: 382 01 $a electric guitar $n 1 $a guitar $n 1 $a electric bass $n 1 $a drum set $n 1 $s 4 $2 lcmpt … but usually it doesn’t.
Still in flux (continued) Recording number of ensembles $n only refers to the number of performers Currently no good way to record a piece for two orchestras, etc. MLA is looking into a new MARC subfield for number of ensembles How will this work in BIBFRAME?
For now Music catalogers are continuing to use LCSH terms in 650s Encouraged to add 382s to bibliographic records as well Adding 382s to authority records for musical works
In the future? Retrospective conversion Current subject headings have a wealth of information that can be converted to LCMPT vocabulary New interfaces Ability to plug in certain instruments and voices Retrieve all musical works written for those media Ability to facet by medium of performance
Have a new term? The thesaurus has been launched, but maintenance will be ongoing All proposals for new or changed terms should go through the SACO Music Funnel Project: http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/saco/Music_Funnel.html http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/saco/Music_Funnel.html Currently proposed terms include: agogo glass harp jhāñjh prepared violin ve ṇ u
The possibilities are endless Composers love to come up with new and strange ways to perform music. Deconstruction no. 2 – Songo-go For tenor voice, tam-tam, toy dart guns, golfer with ping pong balls, Walkman, and clock tower bells (Must be played at 4:00 p.m. to be timed correctly with the bells) (And also the tenor has to dance)
Thanks to Janis Young, LC PSD MLA Subject Access Subcommittee Casey Mullin, Stanford University Nancy Lorimer, Stanford University Kevin Kishimoto, University of Chicago