Brainstorming Expressions 1. Expressions for describing general impressions of a person: Positive expressions: polite, smart, cute, nice, a good leader, well-educated, gentle, charming, wise man Negative expressions: clumsy, forgetful, rude, careless, stupid, a follower, (somebody) having more age than experience, wise guy Neutral expressions: funny, strange, peculiar, sensitive, forgetful
2. Expressions for describing someone's emotional changes: Changes for the better: calm, cool, cheer up, feel better, be sympathetic with Changes for the worse: get panicky, feel nervous, have butterflies in the stomach, get irritated / angry, become anxious, wear / have a questioning expression, be horrified, feel guilty, be embarrassed
3. Expressions of behaviour: Silly behaviour: play the fool (e.g. to make people laugh), make a fool of oneself (unintentional), be up to no good / mischief, mess / fool around (wasting one's time, behaving foolishly), behave badly, get into trouble Good behaviour: be good / be as good as gold (of children, behaving very well), set a good example, turn over a new leaf, behave oneself Neutral behaviour: behave, conduct oneself
4. Expressions for social positions or titles: headmaster, doctor, nurse, director, supervisor, head of department (HOD), chairman / chairwoman, professor, coach, president 5. Expressions for commenting on personalities: can't stand, (can't) put up with, It takes all sorts (to make a world). To err is human, to forgive is divine. (someone's silly behaviour) almost brings down the house, arouse hilarious laughter, be disgusted at / with
Listening Telling a story A story of an old lady
1. John had to write an essay. The essay would be about an elderly person, but John knew little about old people. John's teacher advised him to visit an old people's nursing home. 2. John felt nervous when he first entered the office, but the director was very nice to him. She showed him a list of the old people living there and helped him to choose an old lady to visit. 3. John found that the old lady was a bit deaf and clumsy, but that she was diligently knitting. She didn't speak very much, and didn't seem to know what she was doing. John decided that she was crazy. 4. John received a package in which he found a wool sweater. A note from the director of the nursing home said that it was given to him by the old lady as a gift for visiting her. The old lady was very happy when she died a few days before.
Text Why My Great-uncle Gave Up the Ministry 1. Have you ever been haunted by a guilty conscience for something you accidentally did? 2. What do you think is the best policy if you have unintentionally committed a folly?
The reason(s) why the narrator's great uncle gave up the ministry The kindly and gentle minister decided to retire from the ministry because his clumsiness brought about two accidents which made him suffer from a guilty conscience.
Main Idea clumsinessMy great uncle Alden Bentley used to be a full-time Baptist minister. He was beloved and considered as a wonderful, jolly, gentle man despite his large size. However, his terrible clumsiness, seemingly his only real fault, led him to give up his profession. During a pastoral call a woman, this clumsy young minister inadvertently sat on and killed her pet dog, but he was too panicky to tell her the truth. Five years later, he revisited the woman, intending to confess his guilt. Unfortunately, his clumsiness left a horrible mess of the guest room he slept in. At last, he unburdened himself. Before long, he retired from ministry and turned to teaching in a private preparatory school.
[summary] The first paragraph is a general description of the narrator's great-uncle and his accidental killing of a small dog because of his clumsiness. The third paragraph is an account of how his clumsiness led to a terrible mess in the guest room during his visit to the lady. The fourth paragraph describes how the narrator's great-uncle damaged a beautiful candelabra when he rushed downstairs
Why did the Baptist minister say to the woman “Twinkie had a Christian burial”? During his visit, the Baptist minister meant to tell the woman what had happened to Twinkie. He was conscience-stricken for having kept her in the dark for almost five years. Now, he resolved to clear his conscience by telling the truth. He also hoped that he would be redeemed by faithfully performing his duty of guiding the soul of the dog to heaven.
Para 1 1. concern: v. 1 ） to be relevant or important to 2 ） to affect, worry 3 ） to relate, be about He doesn't bother about things that don't concern him. She was concerned about the growth of her children. [idioms] be concerned in sth.: to have some connection with or responsibility for sth. concern oneself (in / about / with ): to interest oneself in sth., be busy with sth. He was concerned in the crime. There's no need to concern yourself with this matter; we're dealing with it.
jolly: a. joyful, merry, jovial (of person or thing) pleasant, delightful I prefer a jolly companion to a dull man. What jolly weather we have today! [idioms] a jolly dog (slang): a joyful person Jolly Roger: pirate's black flag, usu. with skull and cross-bones beloved: a. much loved n. much loved person This well-beloved novel sells up to five edition. Nobody would neglect his beloved.
2. Baptist minister: A Baptist minister is a clergyman of a Christian denomination that believes in baptism. Baptism: a religious ceremony, in which a person is sprinkled with or immersed in water as a sign that he / she has become spiritually pure and his / her sins have been washed away. The person thus becomes a member of this Christian church.
3. kindly: a. kind, kind hearted; ( of climate ) pleasant ad. in a kind or friendly way The students were watching her with kindly interest. Kindly take your hands off my knee. Would you kindly close the window? clumsy: a. awkward in movement or shape ; tactless; difficult to handle or use She stumbled clumsily, as though drunk, and sat down. John's efforts at reconciliation were clumsy and naive. How clumsy of me to step on your foot.
4. As a young minister, he was paying a pastoral call one day on a woman in Dillon, South Carolina, when he inadvertently sat on her Chihuahua, Twinkie, and killed it. [paraphrase] He was visiting a woman in Dillon, South Carolina as a minister. When he sat down, he unintentionally sat on the woman's small dog and unfortunately killed it. A pastoral visit is part of duties or activities in the Christian churches. Chihuahua: Chihuahua is a breed of small round- headed dogs originally raised in the Chihuahua area in northern Mexico. Twinkie: Twinkie is the dog's name.
pastoral: a. 1) (of poem, picture, etc.) portraying country life 2) of a pastor In English literature, many poets wrote beautiful pastoral poems. pay a call on sb.: to visit sb. briefly Doctors have no time to pay calls on their patients these days Note the different prepositions after call, call (vi.) at somewhere; call (vi.) on somebody, pay a call on somebody; pay a call at somewhere. inadvertently: ad. unintentionally inadvertent: a. unintentional Though he claimed to have inadvertently kicked her dog, he still ought to apologize.
5. panic(k): v. suddenly become anxious or afraid n. a very strong feeling of anxiety or fear Don't panic. Sit still and keep calm. Sandy was close to panic. She heard a rustle behind her and turned, panic- stricken. slip: v. slide unintentionally, lose footing or balance ; make one's way quietly or unobserved ; place stealthily or casually with sliding motion I slipped on the snow and sprained my ankle. I hope we can slip away before the police notices. She slipped the note into my hand.
6. Although he was devastated, he could not bring himself to tell the woman what had happened. [paraphrase] Although he was conscience-stricken for his follies he could not make himself tell the woman. devastate: vt. to destroy or damage badly devastated: a. shocked and upset devastating: a. destroying; overwhelming devastation: n. destruction A hurricane has devastated the plantation. We were devastated by her decision.
( cannot ) bring oneself to do: ( cannot ) make oneself do something, usually used in a non-assertive sentence, such as a negative or question sentence I could never bring myself to associate with a person like that. cf. bring oneself to something Some teenagers cannot somehow bring themselves to an awful revision. I couldn't bring myself to touch him.
Para 2 1. resolve: v. 1) to make a firm decision to do 2) to find or provide an answer to I resolved to quit my job. The Cabinet met to resolve the crisis. unburden: vt. to relieve ( oneself or one's conscience etc.) by confession After so many years of mental torture, she decided to unburden herself to her husband. 2. retire: v. 1) to leave employment esp. because of age 2) to seek seclusion or shelter 3) to go to bed Having retired from the army, he lived on a pension. After his wife died, he retired from the world. She retired early with a good book.
Para 3 1. knock over: to overturn [idioms] knock sb./sth. about / around: to treat roughly, strike repeatedly knock sb./sth. down: to strike sb. to the ground demolish sth. knock sb. out: to make sb. unconscious by means of a blow, alcoholic drink,etc. In his excitement he knocked over his milk. She gets knocked about by her husband. He knocked his opponent down three times in the first round. These old houses are going to be knocked down. Don't drink too much of this---it will knock out!
assume: vt. 1) to take to be true 2) to take or put on oneself (role, attitude, expression, etc) I was mistakenly assumed to be a Welshman because of my surname. Hitler assumed power in 1933.
2. grope: v. 1) to feel about as in dark 2) to search blindly I groped for the timetable I had in my pocket. "I mean...", she groped for words. [idiom] grope one's way: to proceed tentatively He is accustomed to groping his way along a darkened corridor. in search for: trying to find [idiom] search sb. / sth. out: to find sb. / sth. by searching We went round the town in search for a place to stay. We've searched out some of your favorite recipes. retrace one's steps / way: to return to the starting point along the old route back Stella retraced her steps toward the entrance.
Para 4 1. In a shaken state of mind...: In a condition of panic. The phrase indicates that he was greatly upset and disturbed. one's state of mind / states of mind: one's mood at a particular time My sister was in a happier state of mind. I couldn't use words to reflect my state of mind. v-ing phrases as adverbial Being cooled in the air, the molten metal hardened. She was sitting in an armchair, reading a book.
2. Reaching wildly for support, he grabbed the nearest object, which happened to be a beautiful electric brass candelabra mounted on the stairwell wall. grab: vt. to seize violently; get quickly She grabbed my arm. mount: v. to fix sth. firmly; to climb on; to go up to the top of it ; to increase The sword was mounted in a wooden case. Walter mounted the steps and pressed the bell. Everywhere there is mounting unemployment.
3. The fixture was hissing and smoking as he ripped it from the wall and toppled down to the landing below, still clutching it in his hand. rip: v. 1) to tear or cut quickly or forcibly away or apart 2) to come violently apart, to split 分开 The poster had been ripped into pieces. I ripped the phone from her hand. [idioms] rip sb. off: to cheat by overcharging rip sth. off: to tear sth. into small pieces The shop tried to rip me off. I have ripped the cover off my book.
topple: v. to become unsteady and fall over; to cause (a government or leader) to be no longer in power She toppled from her chair. That strike finally toppled the government. [idiom] topple over: to fall over The pile of books toppled over onto the floor. clutch: v. to hold together Myra came in, clutching her handbag. Her pony stumbled, and she clutched at the reins.
Para 5 1. rise / get to one's feet: to stand up He rose hurriedly to his feet and ran from the room. demolish: vt. to pull or knock down (building) ; to destroy ， refute (theory) They've demolished the slum district. Her article brilliantly demolishes his argument. 2. with deep reverence: with deep respect or ( esp. religious) veneration for sb. / sth. People removed their hats with deep reverence.
3. Twinkie had a Christian burial. a Christian burial: A Christian ceremony was performed when the little dog was buried. It is believed by the Christians that the soul of the dead can be handed over to God through this ceremony. This sentence is the Baptist minister's indirect confession that he had inadvertently killed the poor dog, and now he wanted to unburden himself by telling the truth. The sentence also indicates the minister's attempt to redeem himself for his guilty feeling by providing a Christian burial for Twinkie.
Para 6 He then retired from the ministry. retire: 1) to give up a position in an office, occupation or career. He will retire from the army next year. 2)to go to bed I decided to retire early with a book. [idioms] retire from sth.: to withdraw The boxer retired from the contest with eyes injuries. retire to: to retreat or go away After lunch he retired to her study.
1. When the girl was crossing the street, she was knocked over by a car. 2. The police resolved to take action to save the hostages … 3. Mr. Bennett could not bring himself to approve of his daughter's marriage. 4. The visiting Prime Minister rose to his feet to deliver his speech. 5. It was getting dark and we went around the town in search for a missing child. 6. When the violent wind swept the area, it ripped the roof from the newly-built house. 7. Since his assistant has taken over all his work, the manager will soon retire from his job. 8. To provide clear information on the bus service, the tourism office has a city map mounted on a billboard. 9. She lost her key somewhere on the way to the station, so she had to retrace her steps to look for it. 10. As the light suddenly went out, the audience had to grope their way out of the theatre.
1. concern: be the business of somebody; be important to; affect e.g.: Don't interfere in what doesn't concern you. 2. when: at or on which time e.g.: The Queen's last visit was in May, when she opened the new hospital. 3. bring oneself to: force or make oneself to do something e.g.: She couldn't bring herself to tell them the tragic news. 4. slip: lose one's balance and slide accidentally e.g.: The climber's foot slipped, and she fell. 5. resolve to do: resolute or determined to do something e.g.: I was fully resolved to see him.
1. a. The next topic concerns environmental protection, an important issue which every government should consider. b. This story concerns a little girl called Alice, a lovely, pretty and charming child who has an amazing tour in a wonderland. c. The first chapter of the book concerns the author's family life in his childhood, a period which has profound influence on his later writing.
2. a. He was about to fall asleep, when a loud explosion violently shook him out of bed. b. The thief was happily driving the stolen car out of the town, when it occurred to him all of a sudden that he had left his tool kit at the car park exit. c. I was just going out when there was a knock at the door.
3. a. It is hard for his friends to understand how he could bring himself to leave his girlfriend. b. I couldn't bring myself to tell her the bad news. c. Can he bring himself to tell his father who has damaged the car?
4. a. Spotting the wallet on the pavement, the woman picked it up quickly and slipped it into her pocket. b. I saw him slipping a note into her book. I'm sure he's in love with her. c. The spy slipped a little piece of paper into the empty cigarette packet and left the bar right away.
5. a. Once she resolves to do it, nothing can change her mind. b. I resolved to work harder in the New Year. c. The young man resolved to win the game and he practised very hard.
The age of twenty is just the ___ of life, and one feels young and full of ___. But, at the same time, a ___ of life has passed, which makes one sad ___ he thinks something will never come back. It is not silly to feel a certain ___, for when one gets something, he may ___ have lost something. Many things really begin at the age of twenty, and ___ all is not over then. One begins to see more and more ___ that life is only a kind of ___ time, and the ___ is still far away.
Section C Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Psychologists are finding that hope plays a surprisingly vital role in giving people a measurable advantage in realms as (36) _____ as academic achievement, bearing up in tough jobs and coping with (37) _____ illness. And, by contrast, the loss of hope is turning out to be a stronger sign that a person may (38) _____ suicide than other factors long thought to be more likely risks. “Hope has proven a powerful predictor of (39) _____ in every study we’ve done so far,” said Dr. Charles R. Snyder, a psychologist who has devised a (40) _____ to assess how much hope a person has. For example, in research with 3,920 college students, Dr. Snyder and his (41) _____ found that the level of hope among freshmen at the beginning of their first semester was a more (42) _____ predictor of their college grades than were their S.A.T. scores or their grade point (43) _____ in high school, the two measures most commonly used to predict college performance. (44) “__________________________________,” Dr. Snyder said. “When you compare students of equivalent intelligence and past academic achievements, what sets them apart is hope.” In devising a way to assess hope scientifically, Dr. Snyder (45)_________________________. “That notion is not concrete enough, and it blurs two key components of hope,” Dr. Snyder said. (46) “ _____________.”
the two measures most commonly used to predict college performance. (44) “__________________________________,” Dr. Snyder said. “When you compare students of equivalent intelligence and past academic achievements, what sets them apart is hope.” In devising a way to assess hope scientifically, Dr. Snyder (45)_________________________. “That notion is not concrete enough, and it blurs two key components of hope,” Dr. Snyder said. (46) “ _____________.”
36. diverse 37. tragic 38. commit 39. outcome 40. scale 41. colleagues 42. accurate 43. averages 45. Students with high hope set themselves higher goals and know how to work to attain them, 46. went beyond the simple notion that hope is merely the sense that everything will turn out all right. 47. Having hope means believing you have both the will and the way to accomplish your goals, whatever they may be.
Read more 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. F 6. NM 7. T 8. F Grammar Work 1. e 2. h 3. f 4. a 5. c 6. I 7. b 8. g/d 9. d
Translation 1. He resolved to work on the complicated project immediately. 2. They saw an old man knocked over by a car coming from the opposite direction. 3. He walked unsteadily/ stumbled along in the dark, groping for the light-switch. 4. After three months’ illness, he found it difficult to rise to his feet again. 5. Owing to a shortage of staff, the task couldn’t be fulfilled on schedule/ time. 6. During the period of depression, the company was running into financial difficulties. 7. When the blind girl got on the crowded bus, the passengers made room for her. 8. He at last managed to hold on to the rock on the cliff and stopped himself from slipping.
Raise questions 1. What did she look like? 2. Whom / who did she look like? 3. How did some passengers feel? 4. How did she sit? 5. Whom / Who did the narrator sit with?
Salvation Army The Salvation Army is an international organisation for social work and for spreading the teachings of the Christian gospel. It was founded in 1865 by William Booth. Headed by a general, it is organised on a military basis and exacts unquestioning obedience from its members, who wear a distinctive uniform on public occasions. Public worships consist of open-air meetings marked by brass bands and banners.
The Army is active in all kinds of social work, including the care of criminals and drunkards, soup kitchens where the hungry get fed, worker’s hostels, and night shelters. Those people it helps also contribute by rendering service as food servers in its soup kitchens and night attendants in its night shelters. The Salvation Army also operates Thrift Shops where used clothing and other items are sold at very reasonable prices. Its headquarters are in London.