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Art I Ms. Tieman. TODAY Please follow along with the PowerPoint and fill in your ceramic note sheet Going over IMPORTANT information for our unit on ceramics.

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Presentation on theme: "Art I Ms. Tieman. TODAY Please follow along with the PowerPoint and fill in your ceramic note sheet Going over IMPORTANT information for our unit on ceramics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Art I Ms. Tieman

2 TODAY Please follow along with the PowerPoint and fill in your ceramic note sheet Going over IMPORTANT information for our unit on ceramics Daily grade given for being on task and participating; if you are off task/sleeping you will loose points You will be quizzed on this information this 6 weeks and it will also be on the final exam

3 “Some of the oldest messages left by man of his existence on this earth are the writings he left on cave walls and the shards of the ceramic tools he used in everyday life. It would seem that the knowledge of making things out of hardened clay was not confined to any one continent or area of our world but is fairly well known to every race and culture that ever existed.” ~Don Francois Roban

4 What is Clay? Clay is......a fine mixture of decomposed igneous rock materials and organic matter Clay is continuously being formed

5 Over time, exposure to the elements cause the materials to break down into smaller and smaller pieces Boulders Rocks Pebbles Fine grain materials that make up clay

6 Objects made from any type of clay that is fired with the aid of heat

7 History of Ceramics It is hypothesized that ceramics came about when humans 1 st learned to control fire Old methods and concepts are still used today

8 Anthropologists use Stone Age clues to piece together a variety of possible theories of ceramic’s origin

9 Greece 1600 B.C Some jars as tall as 6 ft Created using the coil method

10 Cuniform Script Early system of writing in Mesopotamia Stylus pressed into clay tablets Record-keeping of laws, historical events, & harvests Early Forms of Communication and Documentation :

11 Hunting Scene 2250-2150 BCE, Mesopotamia Form of signature, or identification on important documents Cylinder Seal

12 Pots were widely used as funerary objects in prehistoric burial grounds Contained food to accompany dead on journey to the afterlife Infants and small children Ceramic figurines and animals to protect the deceased.

13 Terracotta Warriors Form of funerary art - buried with the First Emperor of Qin (He first emperor of China in 221 BCE.) Their purpose was to help him rule in the afterlife. Architects are currently still excavating

14 Hand Building : Process of forming pieces using hands without the use of a potter’s wheel; 30,000 years old

15 The earliest and simplest methods are still used today: Three Basic Hand Building Techniques: 1.Pinch Method (oldest method) 2.Coil Method 3.Slab Method

16 Pinch Method Is when clay is pulled and pinched in order to shape an object with fingers It is the oldest form of ceramic hand building

17 Pinch Pot

18 Pinch Method:

19 Two Pinch Pots Combined to create a hollow form:

20 Coil Method Is when long ropes/coils of clay that are of equal thicknesses are used to build a ceramic object

21 Coil


23 Slab Method Is a method of rolling out clay flat to an equal thickness Slabs can be cut into shapes and used to construct ceramic objects

24 Slab Method




28 Potter’s Wheel : a machine that forms pottery using a wheel


30 1.Slurry/Slip: Liquid clay; “glue” required to attach two pieces of clay together 2.Wet/Soft: Plastic clay; workable; easily manipulated ** IDEAL 6 Stages of Clay:

31 6 Stages of Clay Con’t 3. Leather Hard: Clay is stiff but still damp; firm -maintains form and can be smoothed, carved, and added to; *not easily distorted

32 6 Stages of Clay Con’t: 4. Bone-dry (Greenware): Water has evaporated from the clay; form is brittle and ready to be fired ** Clay becomes lighter in color

33 6 Stages of Clay Con’t: 5.Bisque: fired once; ready to be glazed then fired a second time 6. Glazeware: objects that have been fired a second time after glaze has been applied

34 Clay may be recycled through the bone dry stage by simply rehydrating R*E*C*Y*C*L*E : **Once clay has been fired it becomes permanent – it can no longer be recycled

35 The Kiln: Chamber for firing your clay Clay MUST be Bone Dry to fire You must fire your clay for it to become permanent

36 Kiln A kiln can reach temperatures of 2,500 degrees F. and higher Your oven at home possibly reaches 500 degrees - at the most

37 View inside The Kiln

38 8-12 hours to heat to maximum temperature + 8-12 hours to cool 16-24 hours for firing cycle

39 Glaze: A coating of liquid glass that is applied to a clay surface that melts together and forms a decorative and protective surface

40 Glaze also makes your ceramic piece: Colorful Food Safe (check glaze label) Water Proof


42 Wedging: Process of slamming, kneading, or pushing clay

43 1.Removes air bubbles trapped in the clay 2.Equalizes moisture 3.Makes clay texture uniform 4.Re –forms smaller pieces into one big one **You MUST always wedge first BEFORE using your clay.

44 Plasticity: Workability; Is the quality of clay that allows it to be easily manipulated and still maintain its shape Ideal texture for clay = play dough

45 The ability to hold together while being shaped (workability) ? Does it stretch and bend without breaking? ? Test It! Wrap a coil around your finger. If it cracks, the clay is not plastic. Plastic Not Plastic Create the Coil

46 All clay contains water. Clay dehydrates when exposed to air. Add water to clay to make it more plastic. Too little or too much water causes clay to become less plastic. Tip: Mist clay with damp sponge. ALWAYS wrap your projects with plastic before storing. Moisture

47 Score: Means the process of roughing up the edges of clay with a tool in order to join two pieces of clay together You must always: “score, slip, and press” when joining any two pieces of clay together

48 Functional = pottery that serves a purpose or does a job. Ex. = dishes, vases, bowls, cups or plates

49 Aesthetics: The visual beauty or pleasurable qualities of an object

50 Sculpture in the Round: a free standing sculpture that is meant to be seen from all sides Chris Gustin

51 Incising –carving or cutting into the clay surface with a tool

52 Golden Rules of Ceramics: Always WEDGE clay first Score, slip, and press ALWAYS when joining two pieces of clay No trapped air! – poke escape hole! Clay must be no thicker than the tip of your thumb Always cover clay fully with plastic bag so it won’t dry out

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