2Define what clay is:Clay is firm, plastic (capable of being molded), fine-grained earth.Red clay comes form the southern U.S. (no Glaciers) and Gray comes from the Northern U.S. (Glaciers).
3Define the term ceramics: Ceramics is the general term for clay that has been fired to create a more durable surface.
4Explain the difference between high fire and low fire clay. High fire clay is more durable, it can be baked, put on the stove, microwaved, and washed in a dishwasher. The colors are usually less vibrant. It is fired at very high temperatures.Low fire clay is more decorative with more bright colors available. It has to be hand washed.
5Explain what the kiln is: The Kiln is an oven in which clay is fired to make it hard.
6Explain what it means to fire clay: Firing clay is “baking” it.Our clay is low fire cone 06 and it is fired for 6 hours at about 2000°.
7Describe ceramic glaze and what it does: Ceramic glaze is a chemical compound containing glass that is used to decorate, waterproof, and protect clay objects.
8Explain the difference between wet and leather hard clay: Wet clay is easy to model (mold and manipulate) but hard to carve because it is so soft.Leather hard clay is easy to carve but cracks and breaks if modeled.Leather hard clay is also cooler and smoother to the touch.
9Explain what Greenware or Bone dry clay is: Greenware or bone dry clay is clay that is completely dry but unfired.It feels room temperature and it is very fragile.It cannot be manipulated or modeled. If it is wetted it tends to melt.It should not be sanded as it created dust, which is a safety hazard.
10Explain what Bisqueware is: Bisqueware is clay that has been fired once.
11Explain what Glazeware is: Glazeware is clay that has a glaze on it and has been fired.
12Define and explain what wedging is: Wedging is the process of removing air bubbles (that would explode in the kiln) from clay. The clay is kneaded like bread dough to twist out or pop the air bubbles.
13Explain what slipping and scoring are: Slipping is adding very wet clay to two pieces of clay leather hard that will be connected to each other.Scoring is adding lines with a fettling knife to the clay (this creates more surface area to the clay).It is done to make added clay stick together better.
14Explain what a pinch pot is and how one is made: A pinch pot is a pot that is made out of a single ball of clay.To make a pinch pot: roll a ball of clay, push your thumb into the center of it, pinch starting at the bottom all the way round the ball, and continue pinching up the sides until you have formed the desired shape.
15Explain what a coil is and how it can be used to create a pot: A coil is a “snake” of clay that has been rolled on a table or in between your hands. Coils can be scored together in many ways to form a pot.
16Explain what a slab is and how it can be used to create a pot: A slab is clay that has been rolled thin using a rolling pin.Slabs can be cut into any shape and slipped and scored together when they are leather hard.
17Explain what a pressed mold is and how it can be used to make a pot: A pressed mold is a plaster (or other) shape that a slab of clay is pushed into to the mold to make a specific shape.
18Explain what throwing is and how it can be used to make a pot: Throwing is making a pot using a potter’s wheel.Clay is: wedged, centered, opened, raised, shaped, trimmed, reshaped and cut off of the wheel.It is then allowed to dry and is centered, trimmed, footed, and smoothed.
19Explain the dug out method and how it can be used to make a pot: The dug out method is hollowing out an irregular solid shape so that it will not explode in the kiln.
20Explain what a fettling knife does: A fettling knife cuts and scores clay.
21Explain what wooden tools do: Wooden tools shape and smooth clay.
22Explain what wire loop tools do: Wire loop tools cut away extra clay. They are also used to trim thrown pots on the potter’s wheel.
23Explain what a rolling pin does: Rolling pins flatten clay into slabs.
24Explain what an elephant ear sponge does: Elephant ear sponges are used to wet and smooth clay.
25Explain what a rib tool does: A rib shapes and smoothes clay in specific ways. They are also used to clean a potter’s wheel.
26Explain what appliqué is: Appliqué is adding small cut out slabs to the surface of a clay piece.Done to leather hard clay.
27Explain what pressed texture is: Pressed texture is when objects are pushed or rolled on clay to create a design or texture.Done to wet clay.
28Explain what sgraffito is: Sgraffito is a design that is scratched (drawn) into clay using a sharp tool.Done to leather hard clay.
29Explain what piercing is: Piercing is cutting out open shapes through the side of a piece. Done to leather hard clay.
30Explain what lip refers to on a pot: The lip is the open top of a pot.
31Explain what foot refers to on a pot: A foot what a pot sits on.It is added as a coil or trimmed into a pot to keep it level after firing (the clay will sometimes warp while being fired and not sit flat if it does not have a foot attached to it.)
32Explain what body refers to on a pot: The body of the pot is everything in between the lip and the foot.
33Explain what a gloss glaze looks like: Gloss glaze is very shiny.
34Explain what a matte glaze looks like: Matte glaze is not shiny.
35Explain what an underglaze is: An underglaze is a glaze that is applied to clay that has not been bisqued.
36Explain an opaque glaze looks like: An Opaque glaze does not allow and of the color of the clay to show through.
37Explain what a transparent glaze looks like: A transparent glaze allows the color of the clay to show through.
38Explain what a translucent glaze looks like: Translucent glass allows some of the clay color to show through.