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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH Made by: Ms. Anila Sohail Khan.

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Presentation on theme: "DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH Made by: Ms. Anila Sohail Khan."— Presentation transcript:

1 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH Made by: Ms. Anila Sohail Khan

2 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH CHARACTERISTICS: It is original quotation of a talk It is always placed between two quotation marks It is always preceded by Capital letter

3 Colon (:), Comma (,) are placed before direct speech when the introductory verb position is in the front Comma (,) are placed after direct speech when the introductory verb position is placed after or between the direct speech

4 The use of punctuation like exclamation mark (!), question mark (?) point the type of sentence of direct speech and it does not change Eg. ‘Where do you live?’ she asked My mother says to my sister: ‘Wash your hands!’ She yelled at me: ‘Don’t have the door open!’

5 It is a kind of reported sentence (reported speech) It retells one’s talk or idea It undergoes certain modification It has three types of indirect speech 1. Imperative (Command/request) 2. Declarative (Statement) 3. Interrogative (question

6 1. Imperative (Command/request) The Imperative is a command Because of a command it does not tell the subject and the verb in direct imperative does not change E.g. “Shut the door” Let the door be shut like go, sleep, open etc so in the indirect speech is preceded by to infinitive) namely to go, to sleep, to open

7 It also has non verb, so the reported command is preceded by ‘Be + adjective/adverb!’ like: be quiet, be happy, be here so in the Indirect Speech it becomes to be quiet, to be happy, to be here

8 POSITIVE IMPERATIVE DIRECT SPEECH She said, “Go away!” “Come here!” she said. I said, “Be quite!” ‘Be quiet!’ she yelled at the children. She begged, “Be happy!” ‘Please help me!’ she told him INDIRECT SPEECH She ordered her to go away. She asked him to come there. She ordered the children to be quiet She requested to be happy She asked him to help her

9 NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE: DIRECT SPEECH She said, “Don’t go away!” “Don’t Come here!” she said I said, “Don’t Be noisy!” She begged, “Don’t be lazy!” INDIRECT SPEECH She told me not to go away She asked him not to come there. She begged us not to be noisyI She told him not to worry about it

10 Declarative (Statement) A. Pronoun and Possessive adjective DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH IHe/She Youme/he/she/them/I/him/her Myhis/her Ourtheir/our YourMy/his/her

11 B. Adverb of time and Place DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH nowthen todaythat day tomorrowthe next day the day after the following day a day later nextthe … after the following …

12 Declarative (Statement) B. Adverb of time and Place DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH last …the … before the previous … the preceding … … ago… before … earlier yesterdaythe day before the previous day the preceeding day the day before yesterdaytwo days before herethere thisthat thesethose

13 Declarative (Statement) Tenses DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Present SimplePast Simple Present ContinuousPast Continuous Present PerfectPast Perfect Present Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous

14 Declarative (Statement) C. Tenses DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Future SimplePast Future Future ContinuousPast Future Continuous Future PerfectPast Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous Past Continuous

15 Declarative (Statement) C. Tenses DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH Past SimplePast Perfect Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous Past PerfectPast Perfect

16 Let’s see the following changes DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH Verb 1Verb 2 Verb 2Had + Verb 3 Iswas Amwas Arewere Havehad Has had Dodid Doesdid Was/were had been Didhad + verb 3

17 Cancould Maymight Musthad to Shallshould Willwould Ought to + verb 1ought to + have + verb 3 / been Could+ verb 1could + have + verb 3 / been Might+ verb 1might + have + verb 3 / been Should+ verb 1should + have + verb3 / been Would+ verb 1would + have + verb 3 / been

18 Examples: DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH Ali: ‘I will go now.’Ali said that he would go then Rani: ‘They love me.’ Rani told me they loved her ‘I’ve been writing’, Dina Dina answered that she answered had been writing Mother: ‘I was sick Mother told that yesterday.’ she had been sick the day before

19 3. Interrogative (question) a. Preceded by Auxiliary When the question is preceded by auxiliary that needs yes/No answer it will be used the conjunction if or whether in the indirect speech The steps how to make indirect speech: –The question sentence of the indirect speech is firstly changed to be statement –It then follows the rules before

20 Example DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH Doctor: ‘Do you usually take a nap?’ It is firstly changed to be: You usually take a nap Doctor asks if/whether I usually take a nap

21 Example DIRECT SPEECH Mary: ‘Are you a student?’ –It is firstly changed to be: You are a student INDIRECT SPEECH –Ratu asked if/whether I was a student

22 Example John: ‘May I borrow your car?’ Preceded by Question Word (QW) –It is firstly changed to be: I may borrow your car INDIRECT SPEECH –John asked if he might borrow my –John asked whether he might borrow my

23 a. Preceded by Question Words In the question using Question Word (QW) –To form indirect speech the question is firstly changed to be statement –QW: what, when, where, which, why, who, whom, etc. are used as conjunction

24 Example –Andi: ‘How do you spell your name?’ - It is firstly changed to be: You spell your name INDIRECT SPEECH Andi asked how I spelt my name

25 Example DIRECT SPEECH –Sophia: Where can you keep your money safely?’ It is firstly changed to be: You can keep your money safely INDIRECT SPEECH - Sophia asked me where I could keep my money safely.

26 THANK YOU VERY MUCH


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