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© West Educational Publishing Infancy and Childhood C HAPTER 10 E verything that happens to us as we grow is controlled by developmental processes that follow a fixed plan. They can’t be forced without paying a price. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Heredity Versus Environment Nature is what a person inherits in one’s genes. Nurture is what a person learns from the surrounding world. Most skills are a combination of both nature and nurture. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Role of Heredity Genes are the basic units of heredity. They determine many characteristics such as hair color and texture, adult height, general body build, and eye color. All cells but the sex cells carry 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). The reproductive cells (egg and sperm) have only 23 chromosomes each. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Twin Studies Twins have been used to study the nature vs. nurture question. Researchers believe that 50% of personality traits and intelligence are inherited. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Monozygotic (identical) twins develop when a fertilized egg divides into two separate embryos. They have the same genes and heredity. Studies have shown that identical twins have the same basic temperament, preferences for art and music, occupational interests, hobbies, and athletic interests. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Dizygotic (fraternal) twins develop from two fertilized eggs. Thus they are no more alike than any sibling pair. Many researchers believe that 50% of our personality traits and intelligence are the result of genetic factors. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Developmental Patterns Development is not a random process. It is orderly and specific. Each species has its own timetable and pattern. Maturational Processes Maturation is the automatic, orderly, and sequential process of physical and mental development. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing All babies normally walk by 15 months. The Hopi Indians strap their babies to a board. They also begin to walk by 15 months. The development of walking is keyed to maturation and not practice. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing A good environment provides for stimulation, good nutrition and safety. The quality of the environment will not speed up maturation. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Growth Cycles There are different growth cycles for different aspects of development. These growth cycles are different for males and females. The growth cycle for females is more stable and orderly. Males grow in spurts and mature more slowly. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Critical Periods A critical period is a specific time of development when a particular skill can develop or an association can be made. Imprinting is a process that occurs when the brain is ready to receive and respond to a stimulus. Imprinting can only occur during a period of critical development. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Baby ducks can imprint up to about 16 hours after birth. Konrad Lorenz studied imprinting in ducks. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Note the critical peak at 16 hours. Ducks’ Response to Imprinting EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Family and Child Development The nuclear family includes the parents and their children. The extended family consists of the nuclear family and other relatives such as aunts, uncles, and grandparents. Changing Family Structures Before reaching the age of 18, nearly half of today’s children will spend some time in a single-parent family. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing In divorces, the mother often is given custody of the children. Her income goes down further than the father’s and stays lower. Children often have to tolerate economic hardship. If the single parent gets remarried, the children may resent the stepparent. If other children become part of the family, there may be confusion and jealousy. Blended families require extra effort. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Parenting Styles Parental Acceptance Parental Control Low High AuthoritarianAuthoritative Neglectful Permissive EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Sequences of Development Psychologists such as Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg studied children’s development. They concluded that children develop physically, morally, and intellectually in an orderly fashion. Moral, intellectual, physical development EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Piaget’s Intellectual Development Sensorimotor Control body movements Separation anxiety Object permanency is achieved Birth - 2 yrs Preoperational 2 - 7 yrs Self-involved Language development Conservation of quantity Concrete 7-11 yrs Formal Operations Growing ability to reason abstractly and use symbols Tangible beliefs only Some ability to see different perspectives 11 yrs and on EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Punishment and obedience orientation. Obey rules to avoid punishment. Naïve hedonism. Conforms to get rewards and to have favors returned. Good boy/girl morality. Conforms to avoid disapproval or dislike by others. Conforms to avoid censure by authorities. Conforms to maintain communities. Emphasis on individual rights. Individual principles of conscience. Step 6 Step 5 Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Step 1 EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Development of Language Skills Psychologists believe that babies learn language because their sounds have been reinforced and rewarded. Some experts believe there must also be a genetic component (innate hardwiring) to explain the complexities of learning language. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Summary of Main Topics Covered Heredity vs. Environment Developmental Patterns Growth Cycles Family and Child Development Sequences of Development Language Development EXIT
Infancy & Childhood. Nature vs. Nurture Heredity: characteristics obtained directly from the genes Environment: a person’s surroundings, which influence.
Chapter 10 Infancy and Childhood I. Heredity Versus Environment I. Heredity Versus Environment A. Nature v. Nurture controversy B. Nature – physical.
Infancy & Childhood. Nature vs. Nurture Heredity: characteristics obtained directly from the genes Environment: surroundings which influence a person’s.
What’s it all about? Nature = Behaviours, motivation, emotions, etc, that are essentially biological and that we were born with (inherited). Nurture =
Genetics & Heredity. Sex Cells Female Ovum or Egg MaleSperm.
Chapter 3 Infancy and Childhood. Developmental Psychology- the study of changes that occur as as individual matures. Developmental Psychology- the study.
Genetics & Heredity Stand up for Candy!. Heredity or Environment? Color of hair Color of eyes Color of Skin General health Personality traits.
Beginnings PART 2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Genetics & Heredity. Heredity or Environment? Color of hair Color of eyes Color of Skin General health Personality traits Strength of eyesight.
A closer Look at Conception Chapter 5, Section 2 pages
GENETICS & HEREDITY. w GENETICS - The study of the way animals & plants pass on to their offspring such as: w eye color, hair color, height, body build,
Nature versus Nurture. Nature People behave the way they do because they are animals who act in accordance with their animal instincts and are determined.
Genetics & Heredity. Genetics and Heredity T/F Questions 1. _______ The passing on of traits from parent to child is called heredity. Environmental.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Instructor name Class Title, Term/Semester, Year Institution Introductory Psychology Concepts Genetics.
Review Unit 9 – Developmental Psychology. Fetus A human organism from after the embryonic stage until birth.
NATURE vs. NURTURE. What makes you you? Is human behavior instinctive or is it learned? How does our individual heredity predispose our differing personalities,
Section 1 Prenatal and Childhood Development. The Beginnings of Life If you are a young woman, you are born with all the eggs cells you’ll ever have.
Unit 5: Development C HAPTER 10: I NFANCY AND CHILDHOOD.
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Core Concept 4-1 Development is a process of growth and change brought about by an interaction of heredity and the environment.
His Mission… Piaget wanted to find out how intelligence, or the ability to understand, developed during childhood. How did he do it? –Observing, questioning,
The Endocrine System. What is the Endocrine System? Glands in the body that secrete hormones Hormones stimulate growth and affect moods and emotions –
LET’S PLAY JEOPARDY!! PSYCHOLOGY JEOPARDY IntroPrenatal InfancyParenting Mixed Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500 Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500.
Developmental Psychology Infancy and Childhood. Key Debates in Developmental Psychology Continuity vs. Stages. Stability vs. Change. Nature vs. Nurture.
Infancy and Childhood. The Study of Development Developmental Psychology The study of how people grow and change throughout the lifespan; from conception.
Heredity Chapter 5, Day 4 Child Development. The Basic Rules of Heredity Heredity is the passing on, or transmission, of biological traits from parent.
Infancy and Childhood Chapter 3. Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology is the study of how physical, social, emotional, moral, and intellectual.
Development Area vs. Approach Child Psychology Infancy Adolescence Adulthood Old Age Prenatal.
Prenatal Development The Developing Baby. Conception The process of the sperm fertilizing the ovum. ◦ Sperm- male cell ◦ Ovum- women egg cell.
Bellwork 10-21/22 Which do you think has a greater influence on the kind of a adult a child grows up to be? – Genetics or Parenting? Explain.
CHAPTER 3- INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD. People grow and develop in stages throughout their lives. Developmental Psychology is the study of changes that occur.
Each person begins life with his/her own set of blueprints or specifications. Genetics is the study of how these blueprints are created. Individuals.
MODULE 03 Nature and Nurture in Psychology. Behavior Genetics Studies the relative influences of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Nature vs. Nurture. Nature vs. Nurture Quiz Answer True or False for the following questions 1. Even complex human traits are determined by a single gene.
Nature vs. Nurture. Genetics All creatures have a unique genetic code, or biological blueprint That blueprint is found inside every cell in the body.
Nature and Nurture in Psychology Module 03. Behavior Genetics The study of the relative effects of genes and environmental influences our behavior.
A Closer Look at Conception Introduction: The Genetic Package Each of us inherits many personal characteristics from our parents. EX: physical build,
EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY EIGHTH EDITION IN MODULES David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, © 2011.
MENTAL HEALTH: Recognizing the Healthy Personality Ms. Mai Lawndale High School.
Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 3 The Nature and Nurture Of Behavior James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.
Discussed most of this in Chapter 3 First step choosing a mature and financially stable partner. Children born by choice, rather than by chance, have.
Unit 2 – Life Span Development Module 4: Prenatal and Childhood Development.
Chapter 3 Nature and Nurture of Behavior. Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us. environment.
DEVELOPMENTAL Ψ Prenatal Development, Infancy & Childhood.
Developmental Psychology UNIT 9 Baby Ethan "What is it?"
Meiosis Chapter 4.3 Guided Notes. Let’s review…. Mitosis produces two genetically identical daughter cells. In sexual reproduction, offspring inherit.
Heredity and Growth In this lesson, you will Learn About… How traits are passed from parents to children. How a baby develops inside its mother’s body.
Intellectual Development What exactly is it?. What is cognitive development? Refers to how a person: Perceives things Thinks and gains understanding of.
Sex Cells and Inheritance Cells- more on the nucleus Animal and plant cells contain a nucleus. The nucleus controls cell activities including cell division.
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