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© West Educational Publishing Infancy and Childhood C HAPTER 10 E verything that happens to us as we grow is controlled by developmental processes that.

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Presentation on theme: "© West Educational Publishing Infancy and Childhood C HAPTER 10 E verything that happens to us as we grow is controlled by developmental processes that."— Presentation transcript:

1 © West Educational Publishing Infancy and Childhood C HAPTER 10 E verything that happens to us as we grow is controlled by developmental processes that follow a fixed plan. They can’t be forced without paying a price. EXIT

2 © West Educational Publishing Heredity Versus Environment Nature is what a person inherits in one’s genes. Nurture is what a person learns from the surrounding world. Most skills are a combination of both nature and nurture. EXIT

3 © West Educational Publishing The Role of Heredity Genes are the basic units of heredity. They determine many characteristics such as hair color and texture, adult height, general body build, and eye color. All cells but the sex cells carry 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). The reproductive cells (egg and sperm) have only 23 chromosomes each. EXIT

4 © West Educational Publishing Twin Studies Twins have been used to study the nature vs. nurture question. Researchers believe that 50% of personality traits and intelligence are inherited. EXIT

5 © West Educational Publishing Monozygotic (identical) twins develop when a fertilized egg divides into two separate embryos. They have the same genes and heredity. Studies have shown that identical twins have the same basic temperament, preferences for art and music, occupational interests, hobbies, and athletic interests. EXIT

6 © West Educational Publishing Dizygotic (fraternal) twins develop from two fertilized eggs. Thus they are no more alike than any sibling pair. Many researchers believe that 50% of our personality traits and intelligence are the result of genetic factors. EXIT

7 © West Educational Publishing Developmental Patterns Development is not a random process. It is orderly and specific. Each species has its own timetable and pattern. Maturational Processes Maturation is the automatic, orderly, and sequential process of physical and mental development. EXIT

8 © West Educational Publishing All babies normally walk by 15 months. The Hopi Indians strap their babies to a board. They also begin to walk by 15 months. The development of walking is keyed to maturation and not practice. EXIT

9 © West Educational Publishing A good environment provides for stimulation, good nutrition and safety. The quality of the environment will not speed up maturation. EXIT

10 © West Educational Publishing Growth Cycles There are different growth cycles for different aspects of development. These growth cycles are different for males and females. The growth cycle for females is more stable and orderly. Males grow in spurts and mature more slowly. EXIT

11 © West Educational Publishing Critical Periods A critical period is a specific time of development when a particular skill can develop or an association can be made. Imprinting is a process that occurs when the brain is ready to receive and respond to a stimulus. Imprinting can only occur during a period of critical development. EXIT

12 © West Educational Publishing Baby ducks can imprint up to about 16 hours after birth. Konrad Lorenz studied imprinting in ducks. EXIT

13 © West Educational Publishing Note the critical peak at 16 hours. Ducks’ Response to Imprinting EXIT

14 © West Educational Publishing Family and Child Development The nuclear family includes the parents and their children. The extended family consists of the nuclear family and other relatives such as aunts, uncles, and grandparents. Changing Family Structures  Before reaching the age of 18, nearly half of today’s children will spend some time in a single-parent family. EXIT

15 © West Educational Publishing  In divorces, the mother often is given custody of the children. Her income goes down further than the father’s and stays lower. Children often have to tolerate economic hardship.  If the single parent gets remarried, the children may resent the stepparent. If other children become part of the family, there may be confusion and jealousy. Blended families require extra effort. EXIT

16 © West Educational Publishing Parenting Styles Parental Acceptance Parental Control Low High AuthoritarianAuthoritative Neglectful Permissive EXIT

17 © West Educational Publishing Sequences of Development Psychologists such as Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg studied children’s development. They concluded that children develop physically, morally, and intellectually in an orderly fashion. Moral, intellectual, physical development EXIT

18 © West Educational Publishing Piaget’s Intellectual Development Sensorimotor Control body movements Separation anxiety Object permanency is achieved Birth - 2 yrs Preoperational 2 - 7 yrs Self-involved Language development Conservation of quantity Concrete 7-11 yrs Formal Operations Growing ability to reason abstractly and use symbols Tangible beliefs only Some ability to see different perspectives 11 yrs and on EXIT

19 © West Educational Publishing Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Punishment and obedience orientation. Obey rules to avoid punishment. Naïve hedonism. Conforms to get rewards and to have favors returned. Good boy/girl morality. Conforms to avoid disapproval or dislike by others. Conforms to avoid censure by authorities. Conforms to maintain communities. Emphasis on individual rights. Individual principles of conscience. Step 6 Step 5 Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Step 1 EXIT

20 © West Educational Publishing Development of Language Skills Psychologists believe that babies learn language because their sounds have been reinforced and rewarded. Some experts believe there must also be a genetic component (innate hardwiring) to explain the complexities of learning language. EXIT

21 © West Educational Publishing Summary of Main Topics Covered Heredity vs. Environment Developmental Patterns Growth Cycles Family and Child Development Sequences of Development Language Development EXIT

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