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Infancy & Childhood.

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Presentation on theme: "Infancy & Childhood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infancy & Childhood

2 Nature vs. Nurture Heredity: characteristics obtained directly from the genes Environment: surroundings which influence a person’s characteristics and development Nature/ Nurture Controversy: contrasting views of how we gain certain characteristics

3 Infant Experiment

4 Experiment: Infant Sucking Patterns
Infants given earphones Specially designed nipples registered to earphones If sucked in a certain pattern, got to hear own mother’s voice, otherwise, another mother The infants varied their sucking in order to hear their own mother’s voice These infants were less than 72 hrs. old!

5 Genes The basic unit of heredity.
They contain directions for many characteristics: eye color, body type, height, etc.

6 Chromosomes & Zygote Larger structures containing genes
All human cells have 46 chromosomes except the reproductive cells which have 23

7 Zygote Female egg with 23 chromosomes and male sperm with 23 chromosomes unite in conception The fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) has the 46 necessary for proper development

8 Nurture must work with Nature
One may inherit the potential to be a great swimmer, but only with environmental training will he or she actually perfect this skill.

9 Twins Monozygotic twins: developed from one egg, identical
Dizygotic twins: developed from different eggs and different sperm– no more similar than other siblings

10 Twin Studies Experiments: Monozygotic twins meet for first time in late 40’s. One raised as a German Nazi, the other as a Jew in the Caribbean. Have same mustache, glasses, like same foods, read magazines back to front, store rubber bands on wrists, like to scare people with loud sneeze, etc. Often have similar temperament, interests, hobbies, preferences for art/music and/or athletics

11 How important is Genetics?
Most researchers believe that approximately 50% of our personality traits and intelligence are a result of genetic factors. Behavior Geneticists

12 Developmental Patterns
Development within a species is orderly and specific. Development takes longer in species that ultimately have a more complex maturity.

13 Different Species Humans have the longest developmental process of all creatures because they reach a higher level of intelligence and skills.

14 Maturational Process Maturation: the automatic, orderly, sequential process of physical and mental development (how long each takes will differ between individuals but happen in the same sequence) Example: Walking will occur regardless of teaching or environment (9-15 months)

15 The Myth of Educational Toys
Maturation occurs based on the development and growth of nerve cells Stimulation is necessary to proceed at your own pace, but without it your development may slow. However, you cannot speed it up.

16 Growth Cycles Growth cycles are orderly patterns of development.
At age 8; brain is about 95% developed, body about 45%, and reproductive system about 10%.

17 Critical Periods A specific period of development that is the only time when a particular skill can begin to develop or an association occur. Examples: smiling occurs in the first 2 months and learning a foreign language by age 12.

18 Imprinting Biological process in which the young of certain species follow and become attached to their mothers. Occurs during a critical period. Ducks and other species accept a mother at a specific time in development. Konrad Lorenz 1937


20 Parenting

21 Parenting Styles Permissive Authoritarian Authoritative

22 Permissive Parenting

23 Authoritarian Parenting

24 Authoritative Parenting

25 Developmental Theorists
Piaget– Sequence of Cognitive Development Kohlberg– Sequence of Moral Development Erikson– Sequence of Emotional Development

26 Piaget Sensorimotor (Birth-2) Preoperational (2-7)
Concrete Operations (7-11) Formal Operations (11+)

27 Sensorimotor 0-2 Birth: Raw Sensation--Lights, Sounds, Tastes, Smells
3 Months: Movement and Reaching 5-8 Months: No object permanence yet 9-12 Months: Object permanence appears, and separation anxiety 2 years: Move from world of sensation and movement to world of thought

28 Preoperational (2-7) 2 years: Object Permanence well established, no Reversibility or Conservation skills, cannot view world from other’s perspectives 3-7 years: Growing awareness of reversibility and conservation

29 Conservation

30 Concrete Operations (7-11)
7 years: Reversibility well established 8 years: Some conservation skills well established 9-11 years: Able to view world more and more from another’s point of view

31 Formal Operations (11+) 11+ years: Growing ability to think abstractly and symbolically

32 Kohlberg – Moral Devleopment
Preconventional Level (0-6) Conventional Level (7-11) Postconventional (11+)

33 Preconventional (0-6) You mimic what you have been taught is right.
Children obey either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.

34 “Good Boy!”

35 “Bad Girl/Boy!”

36 Conventional Level (7-11)
By adolescence you care for others and uphold laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules. Base moral reasoning on the expectations of others

37 Conventional Level Reasoning for/against Cheating
“If I cheat, no one gets hurt and I get an A.” Or “If I cheat, I may get caught and get in trouble.”

38 Postconventional (11+) Morality in which personal ethics + human rights are most important Only some will attain these self-defined ethical principles

39 Postconventional Level (11+)
Do you help 1 rich man or 10 poor? When you were little, likely answer was 1 rich man because he would give you a reward.

40 Scenario You work at a computer warehouse. Your boss has to leave early and tells you to lock up when you’re done. You’re tempted to steal equipment. Describe reasoning that could take place at each level.

41 Typical Reasoning: Preconventional Conventional Postconventional

42 Scenario Steve is a high school senior who lives with his widowed mother. They have just learned that she is dying of an almost incurable disease. The pharmacy of the local hospital has the medicine that could save her, but it costs $25,000. Steve and his mother do not have the money to pay for the medicine and they have no way to raise the money. The hospital refused to let them have the drug. One night, in desperation, Steve broke into the pharmacy and took the amount of the drug his mother needed. Do you think Steve should have done this? Justify your “yes” or “no” with arguments that could be made using each stage of reasoning.

43 Erikson – p.417-419 Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)
Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18) Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3) Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40) Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6) Generativity vs. Stagnation (41-69) Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11) Integrity vs. Despair (70+)

44 Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) Mama? Anyone? Hello!?! Uh-oh!

45 Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3) I think I can… I can do it!!! Uh-oh!!!

46 Initiative vs. Guilt (4-5)

47 Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11)
Oh boy, a test Huh? This is too hard I’m outta here!!

48 Identity vs. Identity Confusion (12-18)
Who do your parents want you to be? Who do your friends want you to be? Who does you boy/ girlfriend want you to be? Who do your coaches, teachers, mentors want you to be? Who do your teammates want you to be? Who does your brother/ sister/ aunt/ uncle/ grandparents want you to be? Can you please them? Do you want to?

49 Who do YOU want to be?


51 Intimacy vs. Isolation (Late teens to ~30 - early adulthood)

52 Generativity vs. Stagnation (30-65 – Mid-life)

53 Integrity vs. Despair (65 on)

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