2Nature vs. NurtureHeredity: characteristics obtained directly from the genesEnvironment: surroundings which influence a person’s characteristics and developmentNature/ Nurture Controversy: contrasting views of how we gain certain characteristics
4Experiment: Infant Sucking Patterns Infants given earphonesSpecially designed nipples registered to earphonesIf sucked in a certain pattern, got to hear own mother’s voice, otherwise, another motherThe infants varied their sucking in order to hear their own mother’s voiceThese infants were less than 72 hrs. old!
5Genes The basic unit of heredity. They contain directions for many characteristics: eye color, body type, height, etc.
6Chromosomes & Zygote Larger structures containing genes All human cells have 46 chromosomes except the reproductive cells which have 23
7ZygoteFemale egg with 23 chromosomes and male sperm with 23 chromosomes unite in conceptionThe fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) has the 46 necessary for proper development
8Nurture must work with Nature One may inherit the potential to be a great swimmer, but only with environmental training will he or she actually perfect this skill.
9Twins Monozygotic twins: developed from one egg, identical Dizygotic twins: developed from different eggs and different sperm– no more similar than other siblings
10Twin StudiesExperiments: Monozygotic twins meet for first time in late 40’s. One raised as a German Nazi, the other as a Jew in the Caribbean. Have same mustache, glasses, like same foods, read magazines back to front, store rubber bands on wrists, like to scare people with loud sneeze, etc.Often have similar temperament, interests, hobbies, preferences for art/music and/or athletics
11How important is Genetics? Most researchers believe that approximately 50% of our personality traits and intelligence are a result of genetic factors.Behavior Geneticists
12Developmental Patterns Development within a species is orderly and specific.Development takes longer in species that ultimately have a more complex maturity.
13Different SpeciesHumans have the longest developmental process of all creatures because they reach a higher level of intelligence and skills.
14Maturational ProcessMaturation: the automatic, orderly, sequential process of physical and mental development (how long each takes will differ between individuals but happen in the same sequence)Example: Walking will occur regardless of teaching or environment (9-15 months)
15The Myth of Educational Toys Maturation occurs based on the development and growth of nerve cellsStimulation is necessary to proceed at your own pace, but without it your development may slow.However, you cannot speed it up.
16Growth Cycles Growth cycles are orderly patterns of development. At age 8; brain is about 95% developed, body about 45%, and reproductive system about 10%.
17Critical PeriodsA specific period of development that is the only time when a particular skill can begin to develop or an association occur.Examples: smiling occurs in the first 2 months and learning a foreign language by age 12.
18ImprintingBiological process in which the young of certain species follow and become attached to their mothers.Occurs during a critical period.Ducks and other species accept amother at a specific time indevelopment. Konrad Lorenz 1937
27Sensorimotor 0-2 Birth: Raw Sensation--Lights, Sounds, Tastes, Smells 3 Months: Movement and Reaching5-8 Months: No object permanence yet9-12 Months: Object permanence appears, and separation anxiety2 years: Move from world of sensation and movement to world of thought
28Preoperational (2-7)2 years: Object Permanence well established, no Reversibility or Conservation skills, cannot view world from other’s perspectives3-7 years: Growing awareness of reversibility and conservation
36Conventional Level (7-11) By adolescence you care for others and uphold laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules.Base moral reasoning on the expectations of others
37Conventional Level Reasoning for/against Cheating “If I cheat, no one gets hurt and I get an A.”Or“If I cheat, I may get caught and get in trouble.”
38Postconventional (11+)Morality in which personal ethics + human rights are most importantOnly some will attain these self-defined ethical principles
39Postconventional Level (11+) Do you help 1 rich manor 10 poor?When you were little,likely answer was 1 rich manbecause he would give you a reward.
40ScenarioYou work at a computer warehouse. Your boss has to leave early and tells you to lock up when you’re done. You’re tempted to steal equipment.Describe reasoning that could take place at each level.
42ScenarioSteve is a high school senior who lives with his widowed mother. They have just learned that she is dying of an almost incurable disease. The pharmacy of the local hospital has the medicine that could save her, but it costs $25,000. Steve and his mother do not have the money to pay for the medicine and they have no way to raise the money. The hospital refused to let them have the drug. One night, in desperation, Steve broke into the pharmacy and took the amount of the drug his mother needed. Do you think Steve should have done this? Justify your “yes” or “no” with arguments that could be made using each stage of reasoning.
43Erikson – p.417-419 Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18)Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3)Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40)Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6)Generativity vs. Stagnation (41-69)Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11)Integrity vs. Despair (70+)
44Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)Mama? Anyone? Hello!?! Uh-oh!
45Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3)I think I can… I can do it!!! Uh-oh!!!
47Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11) Oh boy, a test Huh? This is too hard I’m outta here!!
48Identity vs. Identity Confusion (12-18) Who do your parents want you to be?Who do your friends want you to be?Who does you boy/ girlfriend want you to be?Who do your coaches, teachers, mentors want you to be?Who do your teammates want you to be?Who does your brother/ sister/ aunt/ uncle/ grandparents want you to be?Can you please them? Do you want to?