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Infancy & Childhood. Nature vs. Nurture Heredity: characteristics obtained directly from the genes Environment: a person’s surroundings, which influence.

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Presentation on theme: "Infancy & Childhood. Nature vs. Nurture Heredity: characteristics obtained directly from the genes Environment: a person’s surroundings, which influence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infancy & Childhood

2 Nature vs. Nurture Heredity: characteristics obtained directly from the genes Environment: a person’s surroundings, which influence their characteristics and development Nature/ Nurture Controversy: contrasting views of how we gain certain characteristics

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4 Infant Experiment

5 Experiment: Infant Sucking Patterns Infants given earphones Specially designed nipples registered to earphones If sucked in a certain pattern, got to hear own mother’s voice, otherwise, another mother The infants varied their sucking in order to hear their own mother’s voice These infants were less than 72 hrs. old!

6 Genes

7 The basic unit of heredity. They contain directions for many characteristics: eye color, body type, height, etc.

8 Chromosomes & Zygote Structures containing genes All human cells have 46 except the reproductive cells which have 23 When the female egg with 23 chromosomes and male sperm with 23 chromosomes unite in conception, the fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) has the 46 necessary for proper development

9 Zygote

10 Nurture must work with Nature One may inherit the potential to be a great swimmer, but only with environmental training will he or she actually perfect this skill.

11 Twins Monozygotic twins: developed from one egg, identical Dizygotic twins: developed from different eggs and different sperm– no more similar than other siblings

12 Twin Studies Experiments: Monozygotic twins meet for first time in late 40’s. One raised as a German Nazi, the other as a Jew in the Caribbean. Have same mustache, glasses, like same foods, read magazines back to front, store rubber bands on wrists, like to scare people with loud sneeze, etc.

13 How important is Genetics? Most researchers believe that approximately 50% of our personality traits and intelligence are a result of genetic factors.

14 Developmental Patterns Development within a species is orderly and specific. Development takes longer in species that ultimately have a more complex maturity. Humans have the longest developmental process of all creatures because they reach a higher level of intelligence and skills.

15 Different Species

16 Maturational Process Maturation: the automatic, orderly, sequential process of physical and mental development (how long each takes will differ between individuals but happen in the same sequence) Example: Walking will occur regardless of teaching or environment

17 The Myth of Educational Toys Maturation occurs based on the development and growth of nerve cells Stimulation is necessary to proceed at your own internal pace, but without it your development may slow. However, you cannot speed it up.

18 Growth Cycles Growth cycles are orderly patterns of development. There are different aspects of human development. At age 8; brain is about 90% developed, body about 45%, and reproductive system about 10%.

19 Brain Development

20 Critical Periods A specific period of development that is the only time when a particular skill can begin to develop or an association occur. Examples: smiling occurs in the first 2 months and learning a foreign language by age 12.

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22 Imprinting A biological process in which the young of certain species follow and become attached to their mothers. It occurs during a critical period. Ducks and other species accept a mother at a specific time in development. If no “real” mother, they will accept alternatives, as long as they move.

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25 Parenting Styles Permissive Authoritarian Authoritative

26 Permissive Parenting

27 Authoritative Parenting

28 Authoritarian Parenting

29 Developmental Theorists Piaget– Sequence of Cognitive Development Erikson– Sequence of Emotional Development Kohlberg– Sequence of Moral Development

30 Piaget Preoperational (2-7) Concrete Operations (7-11)Formal Operations (11+) Sensorimotor (0-2)

31 Sensorimotor 0-2 Birth: Raw Sensation--Lights, Sounds, Tastes, Smells 3 Months: Movement and Reaching 5-8 Months: No object permanence yet 9-12 Months: Object permanence appears, and separation anxiety 2 years: Move from world of sensation and movement to world of thought

32 Object Permanence

33 Preoperational (2-7) 2 years: Object Permanence well established, no reversibility or conservation skills, cannot view world from other’s perspectives 3-7 years: Growing awareness of reversibility and conservation

34 Conservation

35 Reversibility

36 Concrete Operations (7-11) 7 years: reversibility well established 8 years: Some conservation skills well established 9-11 years: Able to view world more and more from another’s point of view

37 Formal Operations (11+) 11+ years: Growing ability to think abstractly and symbolically

38 Erikson Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18) Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3)Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40) Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6)Generativity vs. Stagnation (41-69) Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11)Integrity vs. Despair (70+)

39 Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) Mama? Anyone? Hello!?! Uh-oh!

40 Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3) I think I can… I can do it!!! Uh-oh!!!

41 Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6)

42 Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11) Oh boy, a test Huh? This is too hard I’m outta here!!

43 Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18) Who do your parents want you to be? Who do your friends want you to be? Who does you boy/ girlfriend want you to be? Who do your coaches, teachers, mentors want you to be? Who do your teammates want you to be? Who does your brother/ sister/ aunt/ uncle/ grandparents want you to be? Can you please them? Do you want to?

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45 Who do YOU want to be?

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47 Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood)

48 Generativity vs. Stagnation (mid-life)

49 Integrity vs. Despair (end of life cycle)

50 Kohlberg Preconventional Level (0-6) Conventional Level (7-11) Postconventional (11+)

51 Preconventional (0-6) You mimic what you have been taught is right.

52 “Good Boy!”

53 “Bad Girl!”

54 Conventional Level (7-11) “If I cheat, no one gets hurt and I get an A.” Or “If I cheat, I may get caught and get in trouble.”

55 Postconventional Level (11+) Do you help 1 rich man or 10 poor? When you were little, likely answer was 1 rich man because he would give you a reward.


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