2Nature vs. NurtureHeredity: characteristics obtained directly from the genesEnvironment: a person’s surroundings, which influence their characteristics and developmentNature/ Nurture Controversy: contrasting views of how we gain certain characteristics
5Experiment: Infant Sucking Patterns Infants given earphonesSpecially designed nipples registered to earphonesIf sucked in a certain pattern, got to hear own mother’s voice, otherwise, another motherThe infants varied their sucking in order to hear their own mother’s voiceThese infants were less than 72 hrs. old!
7Genes The basic unit of heredity. They contain directions for many characteristics: eye color, body type, height, etc.
8Chromosomes & Zygote Structures containing genes All human cells have 46 except the reproductive cells which have 23When the female egg with 23 chromosomes and male sperm with 23 chromosomes unite in conception, the fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) has the 46 necessary for proper development
10Nurture must work with Nature One may inherit the potential to be a great swimmer, but only with environmental training will he or she actually perfect this skill.
11Twins Monozygotic twins: developed from one egg, identical Dizygotic twins: developed from different eggs and different sperm– no more similar than other siblings
12Twin StudiesExperiments: Monozygotic twins meet for first time in late 40’s. One raised as a German Nazi, the other as a Jew in the Caribbean. Have same mustache, glasses, like same foods, read magazines back to front, store rubber bands on wrists, like to scare people with loud sneeze, etc.
13How important is Genetics? Most researchers believe that approximately 50% of our personality traits and intelligence are a result of genetic factors.
14Developmental Patterns Development within a species is orderly and specific.Development takes longer in species that ultimately have a more complex maturity.Humans have the longest developmental process of all creatures because they reach a higher level of intelligence and skills.
16Maturational ProcessMaturation: the automatic, orderly, sequential process of physical and mental development (how long each takes will differ between individuals but happen in the same sequence)Example: Walking will occur regardless of teaching or environment
17The Myth of Educational Toys Maturation occurs based on the development and growth of nerve cellsStimulation is necessary to proceed at your own internal pace, but without it your development may slow.However, you cannot speed it up.
18Growth Cycles Growth cycles are orderly patterns of development. There are different aspects of human development.At age 8; brain is about 90% developed, body about 45%, and reproductive system about 10%.
20Critical PeriodsA specific period of development that is the only time when a particular skill can begin to develop or an association occur.Examples: smiling occurs in the first 2 months and learning a foreign language by age 12.
22ImprintingA biological process in which the young of certain species follow and become attached to their mothers. It occurs during a critical period.Ducks and other species accept a mother at a specific time in development. If no “real” mother, they will accept alternatives, as long as they move.
31Sensorimotor 0-2 Birth: Raw Sensation--Lights, Sounds, Tastes, Smells 3 Months: Movement and Reaching5-8 Months: No object permanence yet9-12 Months: Object permanence appears, and separation anxiety2 years: Move from world of sensation and movement to world of thought
33Preoperational (2-7)2 years: Object Permanence well established, no reversibility or conservation skills, cannot view world from other’s perspectives3-7 years: Growing awareness of reversibility and conservation
36Concrete Operations (7-11) 7 years: reversibility well established8 years: Some conservation skills well established9-11 years: Able to view world more and more from another’s point of view
37Formal Operations (11+)11+ years: Growing ability to think abstractly and symbolically
38Erikson Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18) Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3)Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40)Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6)Generativity vs. Stagnation (41-69)Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11)Integrity vs. Despair (70+)
39Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)Mama? Anyone? Hello!?! Uh-oh!
40Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3)I think I can… I can do it!!! Uh-oh!!!
42Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11) Oh boy, a test Huh? This is too hard I’m outta here!!
43Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18) Who do your parents want you to be?Who do your friends want you to be?Who does you boy/ girlfriend want you to be?Who do your coaches, teachers, mentors want you to be?Who do your teammates want you to be?Who does your brother/ sister/ aunt/ uncle/ grandparents want you to be?Can you please them? Do you want to?