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Chapter 10 Infancy and Childhood I. Heredity Versus Environment I. Heredity Versus Environment  A. Nature v. Nurture controversy B. Nature – physical.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Infancy and Childhood I. Heredity Versus Environment I. Heredity Versus Environment  A. Nature v. Nurture controversy B. Nature – physical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Infancy and Childhood I. Heredity Versus Environment I. Heredity Versus Environment  A. Nature v. Nurture controversy B. Nature – physical factors and B. Nature – physical factors and heredity heredity C. Nurture – the effects of C. Nurture – the effects of environment environment

2 D. Nature and nurture interaction in infants 1. 2 day old infants varied sucking 1. 2 day old infants varied sucking patterns in response to their patterns in response to their mothers voice suggests that mothers voice suggests that a) They have memory, sounds are a) They have memory, sounds are reinforcing and they learn from reinforcing and they learn from their environment. their environment.

3 E. Genetics E. Genetics  1. Sperm contain 23 chromosomes  2. Egg contains 23 chromosomes  3. Zygote (fertilized egg) contains 46  chromosomes.  4. Chromosomes  a. Contain genes that play a role in  intelligence, activity level and  response to a new stimuli.

4 F. Twin studies F. Twin studies 1. Dizygotic twins – fraternal twins 1. Dizygotic twins – fraternal twins a. 2 different sperm and eggs a. 2 different sperm and eggs 1) Genetic make up is no 1) Genetic make up is no different than any other two different than any other two siblings siblings 2. Monozygotic twins – identical twins 2. Monozygotic twins – identical twins a. Same sperm and egg, zygote a. Same sperm and egg, zygote splits splits 1) identical genes and heredity 1) identical genes and heredity

5 3. Psychologists study twins thoroughly 3. Psychologists study twins thoroughly a. Especially when reared apart a. Especially when reared apart 1) They are very similar 1) They are very similar a) same fears and even a) same fears and even nightmares as children, nightmares as children, same jobs, same interests same jobs, same interests

6 II. Developmental Patterns II. Developmental Patterns  A. Family raised a chimp with their child  1. Chimp developed faster at first  2. Child passed up chimp at 2 years  3. This study shows that development within a species within a species a. Is orderly and follows a specific a. Is orderly and follows a specific timetable. timetable.

7 B. Humans have a longer developmental B. Humans have a longer developmental period period 1. Timing of development is different for each child. 2. Must integrate brains with body movements 3. Baby has automatic reflexes with control.

8 C. Maturational processes C. Maturational processes 1. Child is preprogrammed for certain 1. Child is preprogrammed for certain activities like walking (can’t teach activities like walking (can’t teach them) them) a. Even if they never practice they a. Even if they never practice they will eventually walk normally. will eventually walk normally. 2.Maturation is the automatic, orderly, and sequential process of physical and mental development.

9 D. Growth Cycles D. Growth Cycles  1. Some developmental areas develop  more rapidly or slowly  2. At age 8 – 95% of the basic structure of the brain has developed of the brain has developed a. but the body has 55% developed a. but the body has 55% developed b. reproductive system is 90% b. reproductive system is 90% undeveloped undeveloped  3. Growth cycle for girls is more orderly  and stable than boys.

10 E. Critical Periods E. Critical Periods 1. Definition 1. Definition  a. A specific time period in an  animal’s maturation when a skill  may be learned, if it is not  learned it will never occur.

11 2. Imprinting –Conrad Lorenz a. Imprinting is a critical period a. Imprinting is a critical period b. Ducks and some other birds are b. Ducks and some other birds are programmed to accept a mother programmed to accept a mother figure at a certain time. figure at a certain time. 1) It is a result of chemical being 1) It is a result of chemical being released at a certain time. released at a certain time. a) if an animal’s chemistry is a) if an animal’s chemistry is altered, the critical period altered, the critical period can be extended or can be extended or eliminated. eliminated.

12 3. Dogs critical period a. attachments up to 12 weeks. a. attachments up to 12 weeks. 1) afterwards they are 1) afterwards they are unpredictable. unpredictable. 4. Babies critical period 4. Babies critical period a. 1 st month – smile without a. 1 st month – smile without learning learning b. 2 nd month – smiles as a response b. 2 nd month – smiles as a response to sounds. to sounds. 1) blind children do also, 1) blind children do also, therefore is not learned. therefore is not learned.

13 5. Animals and humans critical period  a. Need touching, holding from birth  1) if not the result is disastrous  2) A young girl named Genie was  locked up without human  contact for at least 5 years

14 6. Human critical period a. To learn foreign language with a. To learn foreign language with natural accent natural accent 1) Must learn before 12 years 1) Must learn before 12 years 2) a few people with a special 2) a few people with a special ability will be more ability will be more successful successful

15 7. Animals a. Must learn a particular skill during a. Must learn a particular skill during their critical period or it will never be their critical period or it will never be learned. learned.

16 8. Feral children miss critical periods a. Children supposedly raised by animals a. Children supposedly raised by animals 1) one documented case 1) one documented case a) Boy living in woods a) Boy living in woods discovered at 11 discovered at 11 b) could not speak, did not b) could not speak, did not growl or act like an animal growl or act like an animal c) missed maturation of social c) missed maturation of social settings settings d) had no human skills like d) had no human skills like speech and writing would speech and writing would not fully recover. not fully recover.

17 III. The Family and Child Development III. The Family and Child Development A. Extended family A. Extended family a. Includes aunts, uncles, grandparents a. Includes aunts, uncles, grandparents B. Nuclear family B. Nuclear family a. Parents and children a. Parents and children C. Divorce rate – over 50% C. Divorce rate – over 50% a. Before children reach 18 a. Before children reach 18 a % will spend at least 1 year a % will spend at least 1 year in a single parent family in a single parent family

18 D. Step parents 1. Are often resented along with step siblings 1. Are often resented along with step siblings 2. Family should integrate slowly so that 2. Family should integrate slowly so that children get used to the new arrangement children get used to the new arrangement E. Income 1. Most families need more than one income 1. Most families need more than one income 2. The women in most families work outside 2. The women in most families work outside the home the home 3. Women still do most of the household 3. Women still do most of the household chores even though they work chores even though they work

19 F. Mothers working outside the home F. Mothers working outside the home 1. Their children have the same level 1. Their children have the same level of attachment as those of home of attachment as those of home moms moms a. even thought they spend half a. even thought they spend half the time with their children the time with their children b. If moms like their job their b. If moms like their job their relationship with their children relationship with their children is stronger is stronger

20 G. Fathers G. Fathers 1. spend less time with their 1. spend less time with their children but do the same things children but do the same things with them as moms with them as moms 2. help children with their self 2. help children with their self esteem esteem 3. When father is absent 3. When father is absent a. boys are just as masculine as a. boys are just as masculine as boys living with their fathers boys living with their fathers b. do not get into more trouble b. do not get into more trouble c. have good self esteem if they are c. have good self esteem if they are cared for properly. cared for properly.

21 H. Parenting styles 1. Permissive 1. Permissive a. Allow children to do whatever a. Allow children to do whatever they want. they want. b. Child does not learn what b. Child does not learn what behavior is unacceptable behavior is unacceptable

22 2. Authoritarian (dictatorial) a. Tyrants, rigid, inflexible, harsh a. Tyrants, rigid, inflexible, harsh b. Children with these parents are b. Children with these parents are moody, have poor self esteem, moody, have poor self esteem, no social skills no social skills

23 3. Authoritative a. Have authority, not a dictator a. Have authority, not a dictator b. flexible and caring b. flexible and caring

24 I. Child Abuse ( 100,000s cases a year) I. Child Abuse ( 100,000s cases a year) 1. Discipline allows a child to grow 1. Discipline allows a child to grow psychologically psychologically

25 2. Slapping and hitting is not the best 2. Slapping and hitting is not the best way to solve problems way to solve problems a. Does not teach right or wrong a. Does not teach right or wrong b. can get out of control and lead to b. can get out of control and lead to child abuse. child abuse.

26 3. Why would a parent abuse a child? 3. Why would a parent abuse a child? a. Don’t know much about children a. Don’t know much about children b. Not mature themselves b. Not mature themselves 1. Looks for love from a baby rather 1. Looks for love from a baby rather than the responsibility than the responsibility c. Come from a violent or abusive c. Come from a violent or abusive background background d. Financial problems and isolation d. Financial problems and isolation e. Unemployment e. Unemployment f. Stress, alcoholism, psychological f. Stress, alcoholism, psychological problems. problems. g. Teenage parents g. Teenage parents

27 IV Sequences of Development IV Sequences of Development A. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive A. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Development 1. The way a child’s thinking and 1. The way a child’s thinking and reasoning change and grow. reasoning change and grow. 2. See handout 2. See handout B. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral B. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Development 1. The development of ideas about 1. The development of ideas about right and wrong right and wrong s. See handout s. See handout


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