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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 1 Biology: Exploring Life

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

3 THE SCOPE OF BIOLOGY 1.1 Lifes levels of organization define the scope of biology Biosphere Ecosystem Florida coast Community All organisms on the Florida coast Population Group of brown pelicans Organism Brown pelican Organ system Nervous system Organ Brain Tissue Nervous tissue Cell Nerve cell Organelle Nucleus Molecule DNA Atom Nucleus Brain Spinal cord Nerve

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a par ticular area as well as the nonliving components All the living organisms in an ecosystem –Make up a community

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings A population –group of individuals of a species An individual living entity –Is an organism

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The hierarchy continues downward with –Organ systems –Organs –Tissues –Cells –Organelles –Molecules

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1.2 Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs Ecosystems cycle of chemical nutrients from the atmosphere and soil –To producers to consumers to decomposers and back to the environment

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Energy flows one-way through an ecosystem –From the sun to producers to consumers and exits as heat Sun Air CO 2 O2O2 H2OH2O Chemical energy Inflow of light energy Loss of heat energy Producers Cycling of Chemical nutrients Consumers Decomposers Soil Ecosystem Figure 1.2

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1.3 A cell –Is the basic unit of life

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings New proper ties emerge –From the complex organization of a system, such as a cell –The whole is greater than the sum of the parts

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Eukaryotic cells –Contain membrane-enclosed organelles, including a nucleus Prokaryotic cells –Lack such organelles Nucleus (contains DNA) Eukar yotic cell Prokar yotic cell DNA (no nucleus) Organelles 25,000 Figure 1.3

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings EVOLUTION, UNITY, AND DIVERSITY 1.4 All forms of life have common features DNA is the genetic information

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings All organisms share a common set of features –Ordered structures –Regulation of internal conditions Figure 1.4BFigure 1.4C

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings –Growth and development –Energy use –Response to environmental stimuli –The ability to reproduce and evolve Figure 1.4DFigure 1.4E

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1.5 The diversity of life can be arranged into three domains –Into the prokaryotic domains Bacteria and Archaea –and the eukaryotic domain Eukarya

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings SEM 25,000 Figure 1.5B Domains Bacteria and Archaea SEM 3,250 Figure 1.5A

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Domain Eukarya includes –Protists (protozoans and algae, falling into multiple kingdoms) –The kingdoms Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia 275 Protists (multiple kingdoms) Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Plantae Figure 1.5C

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1.6 Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life Charles Dar win synthesized the theory of evolution by natural selection Figure 1.6A

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Populations with varied inherited traits Elimination of individuals with certain traits Reproduction of survivors Natural selection is an editing mechanism –organisms have inherited variations, –environmental factors favor the reproductive success of some individuals over others –then populations change over time

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings All organisms have adaptations –That enhance survival in their environment Killer whale Pangolin Figure 1.6C

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE 1.7 Two main approaches to learn about nature Discovery Science Scientists describe some aspect of the world and use inductive reasoning to draw general conclusions Hypothesis-Based Science Scientists attempt to explain observations by testing hypotheses

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings A Case Study from Ever yday Life Deductive reasoning is used in testing hypotheses as follows –If a hypothesis is correct, and we test it, then we can expect a par ticular outcome Observations Question Hypothesis # 1: Dead batteries Hypothesis # 2: Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem Test prediction Test falsifies hypothesis Test does not falsify hypothesis Figure 1.8A 1.8 Hypothesis-based science

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings A Case Study of Hypothesis-Based Science In experiments designed to test hypotheses –The use of control groups and experimental groups helps to control variables Percent of total attacks on artificial snakes % 17% 16% 84% Artificial king snakes Artificial brown snakes Coral snakes absent Coral snakes present Figure 1.8BFigure 1.8C Figure 1.8D Figure 1.8E

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Non-Science Many areas of life fall outside the realm of science. Religion, philosophy, ethics, politics, astrology, etc. Science must be consistent, observable, natural, predictable, testable and tentative

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biology is connected to many impor tant issues in our lives –Environmental problems and solutions –Genetic engineering –Medicine Figure 1.9

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Technology is the application of science to make life better. Pencil, chair, cell phone, clock, computer…


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