Presentation on theme: "The Anabaptist or Re-baptizers The Departure from Zwingli Read textbook page 33, 34 Zwingli was a Charismatic leader and because of his intelligence and."— Presentation transcript:
The Anabaptist or Re-baptizers The Departure from Zwingli Read textbook page 33, 34 Zwingli was a Charismatic leader and because of his intelligence and ability to communicate he soon had a small group of dedicated men as his disciples But what Zwingli believed and what he practiced was sometimes not the same thing. This lag in implementation of Zwingli’s doctrine into practice was due to Zwingli operating church with the city council as overseer or as Bishop (practically)
The Departure from Zwingli There was an inability to live his convictions because they were wed to the state along with his dishonesty (like being married for 2 years before announcing it, and his misstatements of facts concerning those he did not like). This weakness in Zwingli was met with disgust form Zwingli’s disciples especially his reversal of his stand on believer’s baptism back to infant baptism for political reasons more than any reasoned scriptural reasons. The decision was made to be obedient to the teaching of the New Testament and perform a “believers” baptism.
The Departure from Zwingli About 12 men gathered at the home of Felix Manz and Grebel baptized Blaurock (textbook says at the town square in Zurich— Estep & Stitzinger say at Manz’s home) the date was January 21, 1525 Read in Estep page 13, 14 These “brethren” as they called themselves came under open attack from Zwingli. The city council orders these men to: Baptize their children by the 8 th day from birth The “brethren” were forbidden to meet privately for Bible study Banishment from Zurich would be the punishment for disobedience In February Brebel, Manz & Blaurock were banished from Zurich
The Departure from Zwingli William Estep in “The Anabaptist Story” page 18 says: The decision of Conrad Grebel to refuse to accept the jurisdiction of the Zurich Council over the Zurich church, however obscure it was, marks the beginning of the free church movement.” The banishment of these three men sparked a pamphlet war. Balthasar Hubmaier now joins with the ousted “Brethren”. Conrad Grebel
The Departure from Zwingli March 1526 Zwingli influenced the City Council to issue the death penalty for re- baptism. Zwingli now writes (On Baptism) 1525 (Refutation of the Tricks of the Anabaptists) July 1527 The word was out “He who dips shall be dipped” also called the 3 baptism (usually drowning) Eberli Bolt was the 1 st martyr of the Swiss Brethren. May 1525 by RCC
The Departure from Zwingli Felix Manz was arrested and drowned 1527 1 st martyr by Protestant hands Blaurock, imprisoned, beaten and burned at the stake in 1529 Sattle’s tongue was removed and burned at the stake 1527 (more later) Felix Manz
The Departure from Zwingli Hubmaier was arrested, tortured and burned at the stake 1528 Zwingli approves and the City Council does the executions After the banishment from Zurich the Anabaptist were a people without a country or city (with the possible exception of Munster) Old Anabaptist drawing
Three Life Sketches Michael Sattler, Balthaser Hubmaier, and Menno Simons Michael Sattler 1490-1527 Born in Staufien, near Freiburg, Germany about 1490 Sattler was probably present at the 2 nd Disputation in Zurich with Zwingli Sattler in February 1527 presided over the Schleitheim Disputation and probably wrote the Confession. Michael Sattler
Soon after Austrian authorities in Rottenburg arrested Sattler and his wife and found him in possession of the Schleitheim Confession along with other documents of the Anabaptist The trial was an emotionally charged circus but Sattler kept his cool During the trial Sattler’s wife comforted him and urged him to remain faithful
Michael Sattler For the crime of his commitment to Anabaptism the sentence read as follows: “Michael Sattler shall be committed to the executioner. The later shall take him to the square and there first cut out his tongue, and then tie him fast to a wagon and there with glowing tongs twice tear pieces from his body, then on the way to the site of execution five times more as above then burn his body to powder as an arch-heretic.” William Estep “The Anabaptist Story” pg 57 The executioners did not fully cut out Sattler’s tongue and he was heard praying for his captors on the way to the stake
Michael Sattler After the cords holding his hands burned off Sattler gave 2 fingers up—sign to indicate that martyrdom was bearable After torture and every attempt to secure a recantation from Sattler’s faithful wife had failed she was drowned 8 days later in the Neckar River
Balthaser Hubmaier 1480-1528 Probably the premier theologian of the Anabaptists. “Hubmaier could well have excelled Calvin if he had lived” Prof. James Stitzinger, The Master’s Seminary notes page 178 Born 1480 in Freiburg near Augsburg Educated at the Latin School in Augsburg later received a B.A. at Freiburg then his Doctorate at Ingolstadt in 1512
Balthaser Hubmaier 1480-1528 Dr. Eck, a humanist, had high praise for this promising student. 1521 became pastor of a small church in Waldshut (RCC) soon after arrival he began to study Paul’s epistles and read Martin Luther At the 2 nd Disputation with Zwingli he published a paper of 18 Articles to reform the town of Waldshut. They were not accepted and he was forced to leave the church as pastor Waldshut Germany
Balthaser Hubmaier 1480-1528 Married in 1523 Elizabeth Huglline 1525 Began to write strong statements on his new-found position of Believer’s Baptism. He was baptized in 1525 and in that same month baptized over 300 others. Hubmaier was driven out of Waldshut by Ferdinand of Austria. He then became pastor of a strong church in Nikolsburg June 1526. During his pastorate the church grew to over 6,000 members. He also at this time began to write against the radical fringe of the Anabaptist. Nikolsburg ( Mikulov) Czech Republic
Balthaser Hubmaier 1480-1528 He was arrested in August 1527 and was burned at the stake in March 1528. His wife was drowned 3 days later. Short but influential ministry. Sometimes he lacked courage and recanted temporarily.
Hubmaier’s Doctrine Man is saved (regenerate) after he responds to the general call of God by (his own) faith – non-Calvinist Believer’s baptism is the formal means by which a believer commits himself to a life of obedience Separation of church and state Communion is a memorial Priesthood of each believer No purgatory, images or pictures A Christian could hold an office in the government.
Menno Simons 1496-1561 Born in the province of Friesland in 1496 Became a RCC priest in 1524 at age 28 After reading Luther he began to struggle with the authority of the RCC as opposed to the Bible Menno remained in the RCC until 1536 while still a priest he began to refute the writings of the radical fringe Anabaptist
Menno Simons 1496-1561 In late 1536 he left the RCC and was promptly baptized. He had struggled with this decision for 9 years Menno had a prolonged ministry among the Anabaptists. Many of his writings are still around. Menno had a keen sense of danger and moved many times during his life sometimes escaping hour before the authorities arrived
Menno Simons 1496-1561 This outstanding leader of the Dutch Anabaptists was very helpful for the later survival of the Mennonites who trace their origin to him.
Menno Simons Salvation by repentance and faith. Menno had a defective Christology: He held that Christ’s physical nature was created by the Holy Spirit within the body of Mary. Meaning that Christ had a “celestial flesh”. Menno held to believer’s baptism by immersion but would allow for affusion if circumstances prevented immersion. The Lord’s supper was a memorial “The Ban” the was strong discipline of believers out of love (complete social isolation) to protect the church from corruption and to cause the sinning brother to repent Voluntarism—church ought to be spiritually independent of the state Very strict qualifications for a pastor. (Menno himself was a man of sterling character) Died a natural death in 1561
The Radical Fringe In Switzerland and Austria, persecution of the Anabaptist began as soon as they began to speak out August 20, 1527 Ferdinand I of Austria issued a mandate against the “heretics and sectarians” because of their misuse of theology in re- baptism Hubmaier was one of the first to be of his victims After the Edict by Ferdinand and the closing of Zurich the Anabaptists scattered to 4 winds. Ferdinand I of Austria
The Kingdom of Munster 1534-1535 Munster was the capitol city of Westphalia, Germany This city became a center for radical social reformers. Munster became known as “The New Jerusalem” Melchior Hofman predicted that the Lord would return to Strasburg in 1533. After he did not return to Strasburg people then gathered at Munster where there was a measure of tolerance.
The Kingdom of Munster Jan Matthys claimed to be one of the two witnesses of Revelation. He helped overthrow the city and set up their own town council Feb 9, 1534. The city was seized and all who refused baptism where cast out. After the death of Jan Matthys and many of his army, Jan Van Leyden took over. Due to the now smaller number of men Van Leyden okays polygamy that later turns to gross immorality The city was taken by the army of Westphalia. The news of the corruption and the association with other Anabaptists severely increases persecution of Anabaptists in other regions. People unfairly lumped the radical fringe in with reasonable Anabaptists. Jan Matthys
Anabaptist Doctrine Evangelical Anabaptist Separation of church and state Practiced voluntarism Believer’s baptism Regeneration required for membership in the church Bible as sole authority
Evangelical Anabaptist Purity and church discipline Against the use of the sword Against the use of an oath Weak on prophetic views Against their brethren holding the office of magistrate Salvation in Christ alone (sola Christos)
Radical Anabaptist Amalgamate of church and state Use of force Practiced rebaptism as a covenant with the church & state New revelation by dreams and visions Use of the oath Extreme views on eschatology (setting dates) Advocated takeover of city government Salvation is in the conformity to the political/social/religious agenda