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Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther

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1 Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther
Forerunners of the Reformation: Wycliffe & Hus. Luther film (questions). Luther’s Christian Liberty. Luther’s small catechism for children. Enchiridion der Kleine Catechismus by Martin Luther printed by Jacobum Berwald in Leipzig Title page from the Enchiridion. Note the parts of the title printed in red and the extensive woodcut illustrations surrounding the title block. Invention of movable type and modern printing perfected in Mainz, Germany in Made the dissemination of books possible. Luther’s Catechism

2 John Wycliffe (1330-1384) English philosopher, theologian & reformer
Criticized the corruption of the church Advocated translation of the Bible into English Maintained that the Bible was the sole criterion of doctrine Attempted to limit the authority of the pope Attacked the doctrine of transubstantiation Condemned by the council of Constance in 1415 Luther had forerunners. Many issues of the reformation were raised before Luther. Taught at Oxford. Scripture must be studied by laity. Common people should read & interpret the scriptures. Subsequent developments. Disarray in politics. Avignion papacy & the great schism: Urban VI in Rome and Clement VII in Avignion. Council of Pisa (1409) deposed both popes and installed the third one. The latter, however, refused to comply. The council of Constance ( ) deposed all three popes and installed a new one, Martin V. Black death on the continent. Eucharist: W. denied transubstantiation on moral grounds. Bread remains bread. Substance & accidents: two complementary categories of Aristotelian logic. Substance is what makes a thing what it is. Accident is a nonessential attribute. That without which the thing remains what it is.

3 Jan Hus (1372-1415) Bohemian reformer
influenced by Wycliffe’s ideas about the authority of scripture protested against the sale of indulgencies burned at the stake in 1415 Bohemia=modern Czech Republic. Influenced by Wycliffe’s ideas. Translated Wycliffe’s writings into Czech. Provoked by the scandal of the great schism. Burned at the stake. The church of Hussites—century before the Reformation. Hus at the council of Constance

4 Passing on the Flame of the Reformation
This is a reminder that the Reformation did not begin with Luther. John Wycliffe making sparks, Jan Hus lighting a small torch from him, Luther taking the flame from Hus and passing a huge torch to his successor, Philip Melanchton. Reformation woodcut.

5 Factors in favor of the Reformation in 16th c.
Duke Frederick the Wise of Saxony (left) protected Luther. Printing press (right) made wide and fast dissemination of Reformation’s ideas possible.

6 Luther Film questions How did Luther view God initially?
How and why did his view of God change? What are indulgencies and why was he opposed to them? What did Luther declare at the Leipzig debate? What was the Pope’s response? Why did Luther refuse to retract what he said at the Diet of Worms? See file 101 S00 Luther

7 Johann Tetzel, mighty preacher of indulgencies
The last line of this woodcut reads: “as soon as the gold in the basin rings, right then the soul to heaven springs.” What provoked Luther?

8 Reformation woodcut Left: Christ out of heartfelt humility washed the feet of his disciples Right: Out of pride the pope makes emperors and kings kiss his feet. From Philip Melanchton’s Passionale Christi und Antichristi Woodcut: Lucas Cranach.

9 Protested against the sale of indulgencies in his 95 Theses
Martin Luther ( ). German Reformer Protested against the sale of indulgencies in his 95 Theses Advocated the principle of sola scriptura Salvation is by grace alone through faith alone Criticized the doctrine of transubstantiation Studied to be a lawyer. Lightening. Promises to St. Anne to become a monk. And so he does. Ponders a question how a sinful man can stand before the righteous God. Confesses all his sins in the most minute detail. in Comment. on Galatians he reveals that those confessions did not help him to overcome his sins of concupiscence, etc. and that what liberated him was faith and assurance that God justified him through the vicarious sacrifice of Christ (148). Individual experience becomes normative. Tower experience: righteousness of God is not demanding justice, but mercy. It makes righteous that which is sinful. Rediscovered Paul, esp. Romans and Galatians.

10 Luther at the Diet of Worms (1521)

11 Christian Liberty (seminar questions)
Identify two propositions concerning the freedom and bondage of human person (p. 2) Where do they come from? Compare 1 Cor 9:19: “For though I am free with respect to all, I have made myself a slave to all, so that I might win more of them.” See file 101 S00 Luther Context of Paul’s statement: Paul declares to Corinthians that by right he could ask for money and provision, but he refused to do so to remain free. At the same time he preached the gospel to all and in this sense he was a slave of all.

12 Christian Liberty questions (cont’d)
On p. 3 Luther makes a distinction between the inner and the outer man. How do you understand this distinction? Acc. to Luther, what things are not necessary for Christian life? (p. 4-5) What is the only thing that is necessary? (p. 5) The Word is received by faith. What does it mean to have faith? (p. 8-9) What is the main function of the OT commandments? (p ) What are the ‘powers’ or benefits of faith? (pp ). What is the function of works? (p ) What is the relationship between works and character? (p )

13 Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) Swiss Reformer Preacher in Zurich
Agreed with Luther on authority of scripture, church councils could make mistakes, married clergy. Disagreed with Luther on the doctrine of the Eucharist Iconoclasm Congregationalism Influence on Disciples of Christ, Baptists, and others

14 John Calvin (1509-1564) Came from France Settled in Geneva
Doctrine of election and double predestination Presbyterians in the US

15 The Radical Reformation
Voluntarist Principle Believer’s Baptism Restorationism Strict Moral Code Generally persecuted in Europe Anabaptists, Amish, Mennonites

16 Catholic & Protestant lands, 16th c.
Calvinism: Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland. “A” means Anabaptist. Territorial Protestantism. The faith of a local prince became the faith of the people.

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