Presentation on theme: "Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther"— Presentation transcript:
1Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther Forerunners of the Reformation: Wycliffe & Hus.Luther film (questions).Luther’s Christian Liberty.Luther’s small catechism for children.Enchiridion der Kleine Catechismus by Martin Luther printed by Jacobum Berwald in Leipzig Title page from the Enchiridion. Note the parts of the title printed in red and the extensive woodcut illustrations surrounding the title block. Invention of movable type and modern printing perfected in Mainz, Germany in Made the dissemination of books possible.Luther’s Catechism
2John Wycliffe (1330-1384) English philosopher, theologian & reformer Criticized the corruption of the churchAdvocated translation of the Bible into EnglishMaintained that the Bible was the sole criterion of doctrineAttempted to limit the authority of the popeAttacked the doctrine of transubstantiationCondemned by the council of Constance in 1415Luther had forerunners. Many issues of the reformation were raised before Luther.Taught at Oxford.Scripture must be studied by laity. Common people should read & interpret the scriptures.Subsequent developments. Disarray in politics. Avignion papacy & the great schism: Urban VI in Rome and Clement VII in Avignion. Council of Pisa (1409) deposed both popes and installed the third one. The latter, however, refused to comply. The council of Constance ( ) deposed all three popes and installed a new one, Martin V.Black death on the continent.Eucharist: W. denied transubstantiation on moral grounds. Bread remains bread.Substance & accidents: two complementary categories of Aristotelian logic.Substance is what makes a thing what it is.Accident is a nonessential attribute. That without which the thing remains what it is.
3Jan Hus (1372-1415) Bohemian reformer influenced by Wycliffe’s ideas about the authority of scriptureprotested against the sale of indulgenciesburned at the stake in 1415Bohemia=modern Czech Republic.Influenced by Wycliffe’s ideas. Translated Wycliffe’s writings into Czech. Provoked by the scandal of the great schism.Burned at the stake.The church of Hussites—century before the Reformation.Hus at the council of Constance
4Passing on the Flame of the Reformation This is a reminder that the Reformation did not begin with Luther.John Wycliffe making sparks, Jan Hus lighting a small torch from him, Luther taking the flame from Hus and passing a huge torch to his successor, Philip Melanchton. Reformation woodcut.
5Factors in favor of the Reformation in 16th c. Duke Frederick the Wise of Saxony (left) protected Luther. Printing press (right) made wide and fast dissemination of Reformation’s ideas possible.
6Luther Film questions How did Luther view God initially? How and why did his view of God change?What are indulgencies and why was he opposed to them?What did Luther declare at the Leipzig debate?What was the Pope’s response?Why did Luther refuse to retract what he said at the Diet of Worms?See file 101 S00 Luther
7Johann Tetzel, mighty preacher of indulgencies The last line of this woodcut reads: “as soon as the gold in the basin rings, right then the soul to heaven springs.”What provoked Luther?
8Reformation woodcutLeft: Christ out of heartfelt humility washed the feet of his disciples Right: Out of pride the pope makes emperors and kings kiss his feet. From Philip Melanchton’s Passionale Christi und Antichristi Woodcut: Lucas Cranach.
9Protested against the sale of indulgencies in his 95 Theses Martin Luther ( ).German ReformerProtested against the sale of indulgencies in his 95 ThesesAdvocated the principle of sola scripturaSalvation is by grace alone through faith aloneCriticized the doctrine of transubstantiationStudied to be a lawyer. Lightening. Promises to St. Anne to become a monk. And so he does. Ponders a question how a sinful man can stand before the righteous God. Confesses all his sins in the most minute detail. in Comment. on Galatians he reveals that those confessions did not help him to overcome his sins of concupiscence, etc. and that what liberated him was faith and assurance that God justified him through the vicarious sacrifice of Christ (148). Individual experience becomes normative.Tower experience: righteousness of God is not demanding justice, but mercy. It makes righteous that which is sinful. Rediscovered Paul, esp. Romans and Galatians.
11Christian Liberty (seminar questions) Identify two propositions concerning the freedom and bondage of human person (p. 2) Where do they come from?Compare 1 Cor 9:19: “For though I am free with respect to all, I have made myself a slave to all, so that I might win more of them.”See file 101 S00 LutherContext of Paul’s statement: Paul declares to Corinthians that by right he could ask for money and provision, but he refused to do so to remain free. At the same time he preached the gospel to all and in this sense he was a slave of all.
12Christian Liberty questions (cont’d) On p. 3 Luther makes a distinction between the inner and the outer man. How do you understand this distinction?Acc. to Luther, what things are not necessary for Christian life? (p. 4-5)What is the only thing that is necessary? (p. 5)The Word is received by faith. What does it mean to have faith? (p. 8-9)What is the main function of the OT commandments? (p )What are the ‘powers’ or benefits of faith? (pp ).What is the function of works? (p )What is the relationship between works and character? (p )
13Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) Swiss Reformer Preacher in Zurich Agreed with Luther on authority of scripture, church councils could make mistakes, married clergy.Disagreed with Luther on the doctrine of the EucharistIconoclasmCongregationalismInfluence on Disciples of Christ, Baptists, and others
14John Calvin (1509-1564) Came from France Settled in Geneva Doctrine of election and double predestinationPresbyterians in the US
15The Radical Reformation Voluntarist PrincipleBeliever’s BaptismRestorationismStrict Moral CodeGenerally persecuted in EuropeAnabaptists, Amish, Mennonites
16Catholic & Protestant lands, 16th c. Calvinism: Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland.“A” means Anabaptist. Territorial Protestantism. The faith of a local prince became the faith of the people.