Presentation on theme: "Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther 1.Forerunners of the Reformation: Wycliffe & Hus. 2.Luther film (questions). 3.Luther’s Christian Liberty. Luther’s."— Presentation transcript:
Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther 1.Forerunners of the Reformation: Wycliffe & Hus. 2.Luther film (questions). 3.Luther’s Christian Liberty. Luther’s Catechism
John Wycliffe (1330-1384) English philosopher, theologian & reformer Criticized the corruption of the church Advocated translation of the Bible into English Maintained that the Bible was the sole criterion of doctrine Attempted to limit the authority of the pope Attacked the doctrine of transubstantiation Condemned by the council of Constance in 1415
Jan Hus (1372-1415) Bohemian reformer influenced by Wycliffe’s ideas about the authority of scripture protested against the sale of indulgencies burned at the stake in 1415 Hus at the council of Constance
Factors in favor of the Reformation in 16 th c. Duke Frederick the Wise of Saxony (left) protected Luther. Printing press (right) made wide and fast dissemination of Reformation’s ideas possible.
Luther Film questions 1.How did Luther view God initially? 2.How and why did his view of God change? 3.What are indulgencies and why was he opposed to them? 4.What did Luther declare at the Leipzig debate? 5.What was the Pope’s response? 6.Why did Luther refuse to retract what he said at the Diet of Worms?
Johann Tetzel, mighty preacher of indulgencies The last line of this woodcut reads: “as soon as the gold in the basin rings, right then the soul to heaven springs.”
Martin Luther (1483-1546). German Reformer Protested against the sale of indulgencies in his 95 Theses Advocated the principle of sola scriptura Salvation is by grace alone through faith alone Criticized the doctrine of transubstantiation
Christian Liberty (seminar questions) 1.Identify two propositions concerning the freedom and bondage of human person (p. 2) Where do they come from? Compare 1 Cor 9:19: “For though I am free with respect to all, I have made myself a slave to all, so that I might win more of them.”
Christian Liberty questions (cont’d) 1.On p. 3 Luther makes a distinction between the inner and the outer man. How do you understand this distinction? 2.Acc. to Luther, what things are not necessary for Christian life? (p. 4- 5) 3.What is the only thing that is necessary? (p. 5) 4.The Word is received by faith. What does it mean to have faith? (p. 8- 9) 5.What is the main function of the OT commandments? (p. 11-12) 6.What are the ‘powers’ or benefits of faith? (pp. 15-19). 7.What is the function of works? (p. 33-39) 8.What is the relationship between works and character? (p. 39-42)
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) Swiss Reformer Preacher in Zurich Agreed with Luther on authority of scripture, church councils could make mistakes, married clergy. Disagreed with Luther on the doctrine of the Eucharist Iconoclasm Congregationalism Influence on Disciples of Christ, Baptists, and others
John Calvin (1509-1564) Came from France Settled in Geneva Doctrine of election and double predestination Presbyterians in the US
The Radical Reformation Voluntarist Principle Believer’s Baptism Restorationism Strict Moral Code Generally persecuted in Europe Anabaptists, Amish, Mennonites