Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Section 4 The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 12 Section 4 The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response
The Zwinglian Reformation Even before the Peace of Augsburg, a division in Protestantism appeared Ulrich Zwingli was a priest in Zurich, Switzerland began introducing reforms Abolished relics, images, paintings and decorations were removed from churches Church services now consisted of scripture, prayer and sermons replaced Catholic Mass
The Zwinglian Reformation As reformations spread, looked for alliance with Martin Luther to defend themselves against the Catholic Church Could not agree on the meaning of the sacrament of Communion (Read 994) War broke out b/t Catholic and Protestant states in Switzerland and Zwinli was found wounded on the battle field. His enemies killed him, cut up his body, burned the pieces and scattered the ashes.
Calvin and Calvinism After raised Catholic he converted to Protestantism and was forced to flee France for Switzerland Published Institutes of the Christian Religion, a summary of Protestant thought, immediately gave Calvin a reputation as one of the new leaders of Protestantism. He along with Luther believed in the doctrine of justification by faith alone Also placed emphasis on the all-powerful nature of God- the “power, grace, and glory of God.”
Calvin and Calvinism Calvin’s other idea was predestination “Eternal Decree” meant that God had determined in advance who would be saved and who would be dammed
The Anabaptists Reformers such as Luther had allowed the state to play a important role in the church Anabaptist believed that a true Christian church was a voluntary adult community who were baptized as adults, instead of infants as Catholics and Protestants believed Anabaptist believed in complete separation of church and state Refused to hold public office or bear arms. Took the phrase out of the bible “though shall not kill” literally. Protestants and Catholics agreed on one thing, that the Anabaptists needed to be persecuted.
Effects on the Role of Women Protestants put family at the center of the family. Mutual love between man and woman Women’s important role was still the servant of the man, & bearer of the children which was part of the divine plan. However, Protestant Reformation did not change women’s subordinate place in society
The Catholic Reformation The Catholic Church had a revitalization in the 16 th century, allowing it to regain much of what it had lost The Catholic Reformation had three main pillars The Jesuits, reform of the papacy, and the Council of Trent
The Catholic Reformation The Society of Jesuits was founded by Ignatius of Loyola. All Jesuits took a special vow of absolute obedience to the pope Used education to spread their word Jesuit missionaries were very successful in restoring Catholicism to parts of Germany and eastern Europe.
The Catholic Reformation Reform of papacy was another important factor in Catholic Reformation Widespread corruption along with Protestant Reformation, allowed Pope Paul III to take a bold step of appointing a Reform Commission. The Commission blamed their problems on the corruption of the popes
The Catholic Reformation The last pillar was the Council of Trent. 1545, a group of cardinals, arch bishops, bishops, abbots, and theologians met in the city of Trent. In their meeting off and on for 18 years, they reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs. Both faith and good works were necessary for salvation. The 7 sacraments, their view of Eucharist, and clerical celibacy were all upheld. The also kept purgatory and the use of indulgencies, although the selling of indulgences were forbidden. After the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic Church possessed a clear body of doctrine and was unified under the supreme leadership of the pope.