Presentation on theme: "Do Now Today’s Title: Egyptian Religion and Social Order ∆It is said that a pharaoh, named Pharaoh Khufu, hired 100,000 men to build the Great Pyramid."— Presentation transcript:
Do Now Today’s Title: Egyptian Religion and Social Order ∆It is said that a pharaoh, named Pharaoh Khufu, hired 100,000 men to build the Great Pyramid. The men worked 3 months a year for 20 years. If the men had worked all year long, without stopping, how many years would it have taken to build the Great Pyramid??
Mini-presentations: After learning about the religion in Ancient Egypt, students will do their own research of important gods. Students will be in groups of two, and they will look through library books to find at least six facts about a particular god. They will draw the head of the god, cut it out, and then write the facts on the back. Students will then present their findings to the class, in order to teach everyone about their important god.
History Standard 6.2.6 Describe the role of Egyptian trade in the eastern Mediterranean and Nile valley.
Today’s Agenda!! ∆Ancient Egyptian Social Structure ∆Ancient Egyptian Religion ∆Group Project and Presentations ∆Independent Activity ∆Homework
Glossary Builder ∆Underworld-the world of the dead ∆Polytheism-the belief in many gods
Recap… ∆Who can remind me of what the social order in Mesopotamia was like?? – Right!! There were three social classes. Kings, priests, governors, wealthy merchants, large land owners Farmers, skilled workers, army men, fishermen, musicians, scribes Slaves We need to remember this, but do not confuse this with the social structure in Ancient Egypt!!
Social Structure in Ancient Egypt ∆Ancient Egyptian social structure was also shaped like a pyramid. ∆There were five levels on this pyramid. ∆Let’s take a look at who was in each one…
∆The pharaoh was at the top!! ∆In the level below, there were nobles, priests, and officials. – They helped the pharaoh govern Egypt. ∆Scribes were in the middle level. Soldiers were here also. They were the ones who fought battles for the ruler. – They kept the records for the government. ∆Merchants and artisans made up the next level. Painters, stonecutters, and builders spent their entire lives working on palaces, temples, and tombs. – Artisans-skilled workers who practice a trade. ∆Farmers, servants, and slaves are at the bottom of the social pyramid. – Why were farmers at the bottom?? During the growing season, they raised the food for Egypt. For the rest of the year, they worked as laborers for the pharaoh’s building projects. They freely did this because they believed it was a form of religious devotion. They thought that if they helped the god-king during his/her life, then they would be rewarded after death.
Social Pyramid Pharaohs Nobles, Priests, and Officials Scribes and Soldiers Merchants and Artisans Farmers, Servants, and Slaves
Quick Review ∆How did Egyptians view their rulers?? – They believed that the pharaohs were like gods. They considered them god-kings, and believed that when they died, they would join the ranks of the gods. ∆How many social levels are in Ancient Egypt?? – Five. ∆How was the Nile River important to life in Egypt?? – It provided Egyptians with rich farmland.
A little more on social structure ∆Egyptian society was well ordered and administered by law-enforcers, courts, and judges. ∆All classes paid their taxes in goods or services, which were then used to pay government officials and the army. ∆Scribes were the only members of society who could possibly rise through the ranks to become noblemen.
One last word on social structure ∆Pharaohs were the wealthiest and most important people in the country. The least important people were the slaves, who were also the poorest people. Everyone else was in between. ∆There were rules about who could do each job. Lawbreakers could lose their jobs. They became slaves, or had to do the hardest, worst paid work.
What was religion like in Egypt?? ∆Like the Sumerians, Egyptians accepted polytheism. Poly is a Greek word meaning “many,” and theism is a Greek word meaning “gods.” ∆Religion played an important role in the daily life of the people of Egypt. Their beliefs affected how people behaved in life. ∆Egyptians believed that their gods controlled every aspect of life, from the flooding of the Nile River to the death of a child.
Whiteboard Game! ∆You have one minute to take out a dry erase marker and get a whiteboard from the table ∆Sit in professional posture ∆Marker caps must be on until you are ready to write your answer ∆When I say go…
Question 1 ∆What did Egyptians make from the minerals and stones they mined? ∆Tools, weapons, and jewelry
Question 2 ∆What tools did Egyptians use for fishing and hunting? ∆Rafts, nets, harpoons, hammers, spears, boomerangs
Question 3 ∆How did the Egyptians expand their farmland? ∆Irrigation canals carried river water to dry areas
Question 4 ∆What kind of crops did Egyptians grow? ∆Wheat, vegetables, fruits, flax
Question 5 ∆Why did Egypt develop along the Nile? ∆The Nile provided fertile soil, water, transportation, and food
Question 6 ∆How did trade along the Nile come about? ∆People had more goods than they needed. They built boats and sailed up and down the Nile to trade with each other
Question 7 ∆What were the religious beliefs that the Egyptians had? ∆The Egyptians believed in more than one god called polytheism. They believed in a happy afterlife. They created mummies
Question 8 ∆Can you identify three ways hieroglyphics were used? ∆As pictures for words, as symbols for ideas, and as signs for sounds
Question 9 ∆Why might it be difficult to interpret hieroglyphics? ∆The symbols could represent different things
Egyptian belief in gods ∆Egyptians believed their gods could be kind or dangerous. ∆To keep the gods happy, Egyptians built temples for the gods and offered them prayers and gifts. ∆Many villages had their own special gods.
The Egyptian Gods ∆Egyptians worshiped hundreds of gods, many of whom were associated with animals. ∆Statues or other works of art often show a god with the body of a human and the head of an animal. ∆Egyptians believed that gods shared the qualities of the animals, such as their strength, speed or bad temper. ∆Let’s take a look at a couple of gods…
Amon-Re or Ra ∆The most important god was Amon-Re, or Ra, the sun god. ∆Egyptians believed that Ra made a daily journey across the sky. ∆Each night, he died in the west and the land grew dark. ∆Each morning, he was reborn in the east as the sun rose.
Osiris, Isis, and Horus ∆Other popular Egyptian gods were Osiris, Isis, and Horus. ∆Osiris was the god of the underworld. – According to legend, Osiris was killed and chopped into pieces by a god name Seth. ∆Isis, the wife of Osiris, was the mother goddess of Egypt. – She moved heaven and earth to help her husband. – Isis represented love, caring, and protection of life and death. ∆Horus was the son of Isis and Osiris. – Legends tell of great battles between Horus and Seth. When Horus defeated Seth, he united the two lands of Egypt; therefore, every pharaoh was thought to be Horus in human form.
What were some other gods?? ∆YOU are going to find out!! ∆You are going to be in groups. Each group will represent one Egyptian god. ∆What you will do: – You will design and cut out your Egyptian god’s face. – On the back, you will write at least six important facts about your god. – After you do the project, your group will present to the class. YOU are teaching us about your god, so make sure your information is clear and correct!!
Independent Practice ∆You are going to receive a handout. ∆Please read the front and back, and then answer the two questions in your notebook. ∆You will have 15 minutes to do this. We will go over the answers afterward.
Homework!! ∆Study your notes for a quiz on Wednesday!!