2 Egyptian Religion The chief God was Amon-Re, the god of the sun The Pharaoh was linked to the sun god, and only they could perform certain ceremonies
3 Religious Rebellion A young pharaoh devoted himself to the god Aton Akhenaton and his wife Nefertiti forced out all other godsPeople feared change, and after his death worshiped all gods
4 Afterlife Souls had to pass a test to reach the afterlife Osiris would judge their souls, which could pass if they followed the “Book of the Dead”
5 MummificationThey believed afterlife was much like life, and gave the dead all they needed to surviveMummifying a body took months to completeMummification was first only for nobles but later all Egyptians could be preserved
6 Tutankhamen Many Pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings The riches they were buried with led to many grave robbers invading over the centuriesIn 1922, Howard Carter found King Tut’s tomb, full of gold and jewels
7 Egyptian SocietyEgyptian society was divided into classes
8 Most Egyptians were peasant farmers In the off-season, they were expected to build temples, pyramids, and palaces for the PharaohDuring the New Kingdom, trade increased and more skilled tasks were available
9 Women Egyptian women had more rights than most women of their time Women could inherit land, work, and own businesses
10 Egyptian LearningScribes played a major role recording information for societyScribes first used Hieroglyphics carved in stoneAs language became more complex, they added new features for actions and sounds, and created a paper-like material called papyrus
11 The Rosetta StoneAfter the New Kingdom, the meaning of hieroglyphics was lostIn the 1800’s, Jean Champollion solved the meaning of the symbols.
12 Medicine and ScienceEgyptians had skills in medicine, astronomy, and mathDoctors learned from creating mummiesAstronomers studied the skies, creating a 12 month, 30 day calendar
13 ArtPaintings were very stiff and unrealistic, with Pharaohs painted much larger than everyone elseEgyptians built great temples and palaces, as well as monuments like the Sphinx
14 Questions: Answer in Complete Sentences Who were the important gods worshiped by the early Egyptians?What were the Egyptian social classes in order from top to bottom?How did the Europeans learn to translate hieroglyphics?Why is Egypt known as “the gift of the Nile”?What were the three Kingdoms of Egypt? List an accomplishment of each Kingdom.What are the two regions of Egypt and where are they located?