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Section Two: Egyptian Civilization

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1 Section Two: Egyptian Civilization
Chapter Two Section Two: Egyptian Civilization

2 Egyptian Religion The chief God was Amon-Re, the god of the sun
The Pharaoh was linked to the sun god, and only they could perform certain ceremonies

3 Religious Rebellion A young pharaoh devoted himself to the god Aton
Akhenaton and his wife Nefertiti forced out all other gods People feared change, and after his death worshiped all gods

4 Afterlife Souls had to pass a test to reach the afterlife
Osiris would judge their souls, which could pass if they followed the “Book of the Dead”

5 Mummification They believed afterlife was much like life, and gave the dead all they needed to survive Mummifying a body took months to complete Mummification was first only for nobles but later all Egyptians could be preserved

6 Tutankhamen Many Pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings
The riches they were buried with led to many grave robbers invading over the centuries In 1922, Howard Carter found King Tut’s tomb, full of gold and jewels

7 Egyptian Society Egyptian society was divided into classes

8 Most Egyptians were peasant farmers
In the off-season, they were expected to build temples, pyramids, and palaces for the Pharaoh During the New Kingdom, trade increased and more skilled tasks were available

9 Women Egyptian women had more rights than most women of their time
Women could inherit land, work, and own businesses

10 Egyptian Learning Scribes played a major role recording information for society Scribes first used Hieroglyphics carved in stone As language became more complex, they added new features for actions and sounds, and created a paper-like material called papyrus

11 The Rosetta Stone After the New Kingdom, the meaning of hieroglyphics was lost In the 1800’s, Jean Champollion solved the meaning of the symbols.

12 Medicine and Science Egyptians had skills in medicine, astronomy, and math Doctors learned from creating mummies Astronomers studied the skies, creating a 12 month, 30 day calendar

13 Art Paintings were very stiff and unrealistic, with Pharaohs painted much larger than everyone else Egyptians built great temples and palaces, as well as monuments like the Sphinx

14 Questions: Answer in Complete Sentences
Who were the important gods worshiped by the early Egyptians? What were the Egyptian social classes in order from top to bottom? How did the Europeans learn to translate hieroglyphics? Why is Egypt known as “the gift of the Nile”? What were the three Kingdoms of Egypt? List an accomplishment of each Kingdom. What are the two regions of Egypt and where are they located?

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